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The purpose of this study was to examine School Factors and Students Attitude towards Music Education in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. In order to achieve this purpose, three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research design adopted for this study was the Ex-post facto design. A simple of two hundred and twenty- two (222) students were selected for the study. This selection was done using stratified sampling technique. School Factors questionnaire and Music Students Aptitude Test was the instrument used for data collection. Independent t-test analysis was the statistical tool see for analyzing the collected data. Each of the analysis was tested at 0.5 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed they there are significant differences between class size, teacher competence, availability of instructional materials and students’ attitude towards Music. Based on the result of this findings, the recommendation was competent teachers should be employed in Obio-Akpor public schools so as to reduce teacher/students ratio.



1.1     Background of Study

Education has been identified as a dynamic veritable tool for the development of a modern society, and this can take place in a conducive environment. Thus, the school is a social and learning agent that provides the environment upon which a child maybe formally educated in order to attain educational goals. Human beings, have unlimited capacity to learn, but however be limited by the behavior, patterns and facilities that the school offers. The sum total of everything within the school setting that influences, support and promote academic achievement of the learner is referred to as school factors (Kamaruzaman, 2009).

School factors therefore include school offices, teachers, instructional materials, libraries, classrooms, learners, non-teaching staffs and administrative personnels that support and enhance improvement in students attitude. The school factors access in the study by the researcher is conceptualized into class size, teachers competence, availability of Music instructional materials. The lack or complete absence of these components of school factors may significantly affect students' attitude in music. Hence, the school factors remain an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ attitude, performance and achievement in Music.

It is perhaps due to the interplay of these school factors that mark out some schools as superior in terms of consistent good students academic performance and attitude while others are regarded as inferior due to poor students academic output. When viewed as a social system, school factors comprise individuals that have goals to attain and all that support the attainment of such goals. Therefore, school factors are the vehicle for achieving the objective of education through improving students’ attitude which will result into excellent academic performance.

Music education usually starts when children are very young, learning kid's songs and playing on toy instruments.  As they get older, many children take instrument lessons, or participate in school choirs. There are also several degree options for those who wish to take music courses at the college level. School Music teachers are often involved in the production of musical plays and preparing students for concerts and competitions. However, there are numerous problems related to school factors that would not aid the achievement of the aims and objectives of teaching and learning music. To improve the teaching and learning of Music, there is the need to meet these factors challenges and provide some outstanding improvement in the school factors in our secondary schools.

School factors have been known to determine learning outcome and attitude to some extent. This is because educational resources and facilities available in a school do influence teaching and learning. The quality of education not only depends on the teacher as reflected in the performance of their duties but also in the effective co-ordination of school factors. It is believed that the school physical features have a form of relationship with the students’ academic attitude in term of the educational facilities, infrastructure, class size and instructional materials.

The availability of learning materials in schools enhances the teaching-learning process. In the school environment, the availability of educational facilities is dependent, mostly on environmental factors such as the school location and availability of funds (Jacob, 2009). This is because school factors exert significant influence on students learning and overall attitude. The author further explains that children are stimulated to have a positive attitude towards learning in a conducive environment with infrastructure and well trained teachers.

Michael (2002) stated that the nature, physical condition, adequacy, and relevance of school factors such as laboratories, libraries, class room environment and other conveniences have direct impact on learning engagement. To compliment there studies, this research work shall examine schools factors and students attitude toward music education in Obio-Akpor local government area of Rivers State.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Good attitude to Music is the most critical in improving student achievement in the area of music. This therefore, poses a great demand on the nation’s institution of learning to devise appropriate means of improving the various school resources that would assist in preparing the right attitude needed to face the challenges of studying music.

However, documented evidence reveals students’ poor academic performances in music. Especially in external examinations like J.C.E, WAEC and SSCE; despite the laudable well articulated objectives of the subject. It is clear from all indication that some secondary school teachers are not competent enough to teach the student the good attitude to approach Music. This is because they are not competent to teach music and lacks the basis needed to impact the necessary knowledge and skills in the students. The question now is, do school factors really influence students’ attitude towards music education in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area.

1.3     Purpose of Study

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the school factors that influences students attitude towards music in Obio-Akpor local government area. Specifically, the study sought to;

1)    Ascertain how class size influences students’ attitude towards music

2)    Assess how teachers competence influence students’ attitude towards music

3)    Examine how availability of instructional material influence students attitude toward music.

1.4     Significance of the Study

This study would be highly significant in enabling educationists and educational stakeholders in measuring the effect of school factors in relationship to students’ attitude towards music education.

The findings of the study would be of great benefit to music students who will be exposed to learning in a conducive environment with adequate infrastructure and instructional materials. This would help to improve the academic attitude of secondary school students in their academic performance and achievement in Music. Also, the knowledge gained from the study would assist teachers of music to be more effective in instructional delivery due to provision of conducive teaching and learning environment.

The findings of the study would further enhance the impartation of music knowledge and skills to prospective music educator, music analysist, composers and studio technicians.

1.5     Research Question

     The following research questions were raised to guide the study.

1)     How does class size influence students’ attitude in Music?

2)     To what extent does poor teachers’ competence influence students’ attitude towards Music?

3)     How does availability of instructional materials influence students’ attitude towards Music?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guides the study

1)    There is no significant difference in student attitude based in class size

2)    There is no significant difference in students attitude based on teachers competence

3)    There is no significant difference in students attitude based on  availability of instructional materials

1.7     Basic Assumptions of the Study

The research is based on the following assumptions that:

1)    Public secondary schools in Obio-Akpor local government area are implementing the Music curriculum as specified in the National Policy on Education.

2)    Competent and qualified teachers with Music background are employed in various public secondary schools in Obio-Akpor local government area.

3)    The various types of school factors may influence students’ attitude towards Music in different ways.

4)    School factors influence on students’ attitude in Music is not established in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area.

1.8     Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to public secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government of Rivers State. The focus of this study is to assess the influence in students’ attitude towards music education based on class size, teachers’ competence, availability of instructions materials.

1.9   Limitation of the Study

The limitation encountered by the researcher was in the area of cooperation from the respondents. Some of the respondents were initially unwilling to cooperate posed a problem until they were talked into seeing the relevance of this study before they cooperated. Despite all the limitations, the validity and reliability of the study was not affected.

1.10   Definition of Term

1)      Students Attitude:- This is the feeling or way of thinking that affects a student’s behavior. In other words, a manner of thinking, feeling that reflects a state of mind or disposition.

2)      Class Size:- The number of students within one classroom that take instructions in music in a particular school. As specified in National Policy on Education, the student –teacher ratio for JSS 3 is 35:1.

3)      Teachers’ Competence:- This is the level of a teacher’s capacity and professional responsibility.

4)      Availability of Instructional Materials:- These are teaching aids that can be accessible and obtained by the teacher. Instructional materials make learning easy and enjoyable to both teachers and students.

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