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The study investigated principals’ characteristics and the Implementation of Music Curriculum in Public Secondary School in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance in the study. Related literature and empirical studies were reviewed. The population of the study comprises of 3235 J.SS3 students offering Music and 378 teachers were used in study. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample of 161 students and 154 teachers. Twenty eight structured questionnaire items was designed by the researcher was used for data collection on the students and teachers. The questionnaire was face with validation from two experts. Independent t-test and standard deviation was used in testing the reliability of the instrument and a correlation coefficient index of .87 and .80 was obtained which show that the instrument was reliable. The findings of the study indicated a significant influence of principals gender, years of experience, qualification and attitude on the implementation of Music Curriculum. The recommendations made based on the findings is that state Secondary Education Board should ensure that adequate quantity and quality of Music teachers are recruited and deploy to all secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.



1.1       Background of the Study

Education has been recognized all over the world as a powerful instrument for social and economic development of a nation. It is for this reason that government at the Federal, State and Local levels as well as communities and even private individuals and organizations establish schools as centre for learning and teaching. The schools need to be properly managed so that educational aims and objectives can be effectively achieved.

In secondary school system, the principal is the force that guides the activities of the students towards the achievement of educational goals. The school principal is the chief executive `and the bed rock on which managerial strategy of the school depend upon. Principal has important role to play in providing effective leadership and also to implement the curriculum. He is the head teacher with overall administrative responsibilities therefore, school improvement efforts rely heavily on his leadership quality. Therefore, educational leaders are tasked with establishing a collective vision for school, improvement and initiating a change to spur innovation, increase academic performance, monitor students educational progress, develop academic programs and other student services.

Successful operation of any educational institution requires competent administrator. Educational administrators provide instructional leadership and manage the day- to-day activities in schools. Educational administrators set educational standards, goals, and establish the policies and procedures required to achieve them. They also supervise and support staff, teachers, counsellors, librarians and other employees. They develop academic programs, monitor students’ educational progress, train and motivate teachers and other staff, manage career counselling and other student services. Educational administrators also handle relations with parents, prospective and current students.

Principals’ as administrators in secondary school are professional leaders who are usually appointed as a result of qualification and seniority. It is the duty of the principal to oversee the activities of all the members of the school; including teaching, non-teaching staff and students of various grades. He oversees the staff welfare and development, implement educational programs; provide of proper instructions, handle of students discipline, attendance problems, helps in proper keeping of school records, school finances, recreational, and matter of health and safety and creation of conducive learning atmosphere.

Akpan (2003), points out that school work revolves around the principal. The school reputation depends on him, he can make or mar a school. This means that the school principal is involved with the management of totality of the educational enterprise. The principal is the architect of the quality of work in the school. The quality of students in terms of academic performance depends greatly on the characteristic exhibited by the school principal. In all human organizations, effective leadership is the key to success.

The introduction of Music as a subject in the curriculum is being incorporated as Creative and Cultural Art (CCA). The purpose of this subject at this early stage (junior secondary) level is to enlighten the learners about sound combination and the beauty of handwork. The subject goes a long way to establish relationship between the learners, society and nature, how they could bring the nothing materials and make it something, how they could re-arrange noise and make Music from it. This process involves the application of the three domains which are; the cognitive, affective and psycho-motor domain. The affective domain includes Music acquisition and sensitivity. It helps to develop fine motor skills in students who play instrument. It expands cognitive development through the recognition and interpretation of Music notation. According to Earnest (2011) former president of the Music Educators’ National Conference, “Music enhances knowledge in the area of Mathematics, Science, Geography, History, Foreign Language, Physical Education, and Vocational training. Music does not only inspires creativity and performance but also increases academic performance and also increases one’s success in the society.

The incorporation of Music training from pre-school to post-secondary education is common in most nation because of the involvement of Music which is considered a fundamental component of human culture and behaviour. Each culture possesses its own Musical language which reflects their own traditions, customs and activities. The teaching and learning of Music in Nigerian secondary schools and colleges is as old as the commencement of formal or Western system of education in the country. Since then, the nation’s educational system has passed through several changes with the sole aim of improving the quality of teaching provided for the learners and arousing undisturbed interest in all the school subjects .Since then, Music as a subject has not been left behind at any point in the effort of government, private individuals and non-governmental organizations to improve its teaching and learning in our educational institutions.

 Long as Music has existed as subject in the curriculum and widely practiced in our society because of the important role it plays in human lives. Music is still trying to gain prominence among other subjects. The implementation of Music curriculum won’t be possible without the principal, teachers having first-hand knowledge of its content and probably the notable problems one might encounter during the process of its implementation as a subject in the curriculum.

Music content include the following: Definition of Music, difference between Music and Noise, treble/bass clefs, grand stave, names of lines and spaces, ledger lines, Musical notes and shapes, number of beats, musical notes/rest and its equivalent, musical stave and definition, technical names of the stave, musical keys C,D,E,F with their signs, tones, and semitone, Music appreciation, sight singing, sight reading, musical instruments, simple rhythm, ear drilling, distinguishing between pitches and rhythms, listening to themes, time beating, history of Music and Music composers, self-accompaniment of simple melody and composition.

The implementation of Music curriculum can only be effective when these problems such as lack of resources (human and material resources) human resources such as trained and qualified teachers and material resources such as textbooks, musical instruments, Music studio etc. overcrowded timetable, over bearing demands on teachers, Ignorance and illiteracy are  well tackled by the administrator. These contents cannot be well taught, understood and well implemented without a broad knowledge of its concept by the principal. The principal need to be musically inclined by obtaining a degree in Music and should have gained enough experiences in his course of study. He should have positive attitude towards the subject because its implementation may not be easy.

      Music is one of the very important subjects in the school curriculum and should be given its rightful place attention it deserves. In fact, the researcher may not be wrong if she says that no school subject or programme is more important than the other, and thus attention should not be directed to one at the detriment of the other. If   Music is to be taught in our schools, and if its program must be implemented, it must be taught without bias and must be implemented without reservation.  The concept of Music usually begins with the idea that Music is an organized sound. It goes on, to note that this characterization is too broad since there are many examples of organized sound that are not Music such as human speech and the sounds of non-human, animals and machines make. Many authorities have suggested definitions, but defining Music turns out to be more difficult than might first be imagined. According to Anuka (2011) defines Music as “the art of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion”.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

     Principals’ characteristic is a major determinant of the secondary school climate. The Principal is seen as the chief executive officer and the bedrock on which managerial strategy of the school depend upon. Principals’ negative attitude towards the effective implementation of Music Curriculum has led to problems such as non-challant attitude exhibited by teachers towards discharging of their duties and lack of interest on the learners’ part. There appear to be negative attitude towards the study of Music in Akwa-Ibom State in some public secondary schools, as principals, teachers, students and parents do not see the need for the introduction of Music in the list of subject because of the relegation of Music to the background among other subjects such as Fine and Applied Arts and Drama.

Considering the importance of Music in Junior Secondary Certificate. This has not help in any way to stir up the students’ interest. This negative attitude towards Music may be as a result of the principals lack of interest in Music, Inadequate knowledge of musical content, lack of teaching aids and necessary textbooks which in one way or the other hindered the implementation of Music in the curriculum. This avenue must be explored to promote and enhance effective implementation of Music curriculum, one of such ways is to embark on studies with the view of providing information which is aimed at encouraging, promoting as well as enhancing the implementation of Music curriculum. The researcher tends to find out the extent to which principals’ characteristics can help in the implementation of Music curriculum.

The researcher has chosen these variables, principals’ gender, principals’ years of experience, principals’ attitude towards Music, principals’ qualification as a point of focus. It is therefore believed that the outcome of this study will explain how principals’ characteristics variable influences the implementation of Music curriculum.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The study aims at assessing or evaluating principals’ characteristics and their contribution to the successful implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study aims at the following objectives: to determine:

1.      The influence of principals’ gender on the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school.

2.      The influence of principals’ years of experience on the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school.

3.      The influence of principals’ attitude towards the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school.

4.      The influence of principals’ qualification on the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school.

1.4       Significance of the Study

This research is undertaken with the intention that, the data and information gathered would be added to the pool of already existing knowledge in the area of principals’ characteristics and the implementation of Music curriculum. This study would be of immense benefit to the: Teachers, Students, Principals, Curriculum planners, Ministry of education and future researchers.

The findings of the this study would help to encourage Music teachers to develop interest in the teaching of the subject and also help to stimulate learners interest in a positive way .The findings of this study will also benefit Music students to be vested with practical knowledge on their field and also afford them a general mindset and re-orientation thereby motivating them to work harder.

The findings of the study will provide insight to school principals to adopt pro-active measures in self- analysis so as to amend their leadership style to improve the curriculum. The findings of this study will help curriculum planners to lay emphases in making sure that schools offering humanities courses are given careful considerations. Also, will they be informed and properly guided in the task of carrying out relevant revision and re-appraisal of existing educational curriculum as it affects the implementation of Music curriculum. These findings would provide useful cues to the Ministry of education on how best to carryout and improve on its task of educational policy formulation, implementation, and supervision at Federal, State and local levels thereby enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. 

The findings of this study will also help the future researchers who are interested in the related area of study as it will provide them with secondary information thereby constituting a platform for further research.

1.5       Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study

1.      What is the difference in the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school based on principals’ gender?

2.      What is the difference in the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school based on principals’ years of experience?

3.      What difference exists in the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school based on principals’ attitude towards the study of Music?

4.      What difference exists in the implementation of Music curriculum in public secondary school based on principals’ qualification?

1.6       Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study

HO1     There is no significant difference in the implementation of Music Curriculum based on Principals’ gender

HO2    There is no significant difference in implementation of Music Curriculum based on Principals’ experience

HO3     There is no significant different in implementation of Music Curriculum based on principals’ attitude

HO4     There is no significant difference in implementation of Music Curriculum based on Principals’ Qualification

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