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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            The cry for new social order is very loud and persistent today in the global village with the advent of information technology as occasioned by technological scientific brake-through. The question that comes to mind is what this new this new social order? Is it something that is merely to change people, customs or even our various belief systems? Is it merely trying to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor? Or is it just respecting the fundamental rights of every individual? These issues merely scratch the surface; those issues are seriously begging for answers! In any given society this new social order cannot change at upper level unless it first changes from the lower level. Societal cleansing begin with proper child upbringing and moral teaching of each child, each family. Parents are therefore required to come to the rescue.

            Granted from the above that the parents are to come to the rescue, then parent cannot occur in space without a male and a female forming a union or otherwise marriage whether formally or informal marriage. Marriage is an essential step towards family formation or creation. In general and in normal conditions, a person cannot have kinsman unless in the context of family membership or descent from a common ancestor or ancestress, as the case may be, or unless such a relationship in socially approved and recognised. Kinship regulations also set restriction on the category of people among whom a person may not marry. Hence, marriage is defined as a socially approved sexual union between two or more individuals that is undertaken in form with some ideas of performance (K. A. Obasan 1999) meanwhile, the relationship is one of four ways: monogamy (one husband, one wife) polygamy (one husband, two or more wives); polyandry (two or more husbands, one wife) and group marriage (two or more husbands: tow or more wives). Generally people tend to associate polygamy with the marriage of one to many women. This according to scholars is strictly not correct. Polygamy has two sub-divisions: polygyny and polyandry as state above, palygyny, according to scholars is a system of marriage in which one man marries more than one wife: polygyny is therefore the correct though rather pedantic term for what is popularly known as polygamy (K. A. Obasan 1999). A polynyous or polygamous marriage is the common indigenous system of marriage in most, if not in all, indigenous African societies Nigeria inclusive. Polyandry is found mostly inIndia and parts of Tibet e.g. among the Tiyan, Toda, Koda and Khasa peoples and others in Kalshinmin and Assan.

            From the foregoing the concept of polyandry suggests the topic of this essay. Which attempt to expose and possibly proffer solution(s) to the negative effect which polygamous marriage has on the academic performance of Girl childs in some selected primary schools in Ewekoro Local Government of Ogun state.

It is incontrovertible that Ewekoro Local Government is the seat and permanent site of Lafarge Cement Plc of Nigeria. The local government has its headquarters in Itori, the local government is located in the north by Ifo local government, in the south by Abeokuta North, in the east by Obafemi Owode and in the west by Egbado South local government. The local government is peopled predominantly by the Egbas and some few people from other ethnic groups in Nigeria and some nationals of other foreign nations due to occupational mobility of labour and the peaceful nature of the environment. The people of the local government are mostly farmers. Hence, it is an agrarian community. It is given that 70% of Nigerians are farmers amongthis only a mearger percentage ate mechanized farmers. Paradoxically, people with desernible minds would posit that almost all the farmers in Ewekoro local government are subsistence farmers. By subsistence farming this connotes a farming method whereby farmer plant crops and rear domestic animals for his/her family consumption and sell some so that he/she can raise money to meet other personal needs. Judging from the above on could agree that to give a sound and befitting education to children in polygamus family in present dayNigeria with the hyper-inflationary trend would not be an easy task and this is the concern of this research. If we all agree that for a society to continue through time, it must transmit its values, attitudes, behaviour patterns, accumulated knowledge and skills to each od the education system of a society, broadly conceired. (B. Fafunwa 1979) defines education “as the aggregate of all the process by which a child or adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour which are of positive values to the society in which he lives, that is to say, it is a process of disseminating knowledge either to engine social control or to guarantee rational direction of the society or both”. Thus, early child training is the express command of God to all parents.

            Nuclear family, extended family and compound family, each type of family invariably affects the academic performance of a Girl child. The psychologist and the educationist are consciously emphasising “that” there are clear evidence to the fact that students’ achievement in schools are partly affected by their family background. It is a general assumption that the type of family in which a child belongs to or evolve from have effects on Girl childs academic performance and that Girl child from nuclear family in most cases perform better than Girl childs from polygamous family. Although not all cases, perhaps a child from a polygamous home have who is brilliant could perform better than a child from nuclear family.

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            The effect of polygamous on Girl child academic performance has attracted the attention of scholars and authorities. This is because the behaviour of the child in school or outside is a reflection of his or her home where he comes from.

            In Nigeria today, there are many problems on academic performance of Girl childs in schools because there is no effective teaching in schools and also the parental background or home in which a child comes from have great or adverse impact on the Girl childs and this is due to the fact that the academic performance has not been tailored and mastered properly from the beginning.

1.2       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

            This project work is of great importance in that, it will reveal the extent at which polygamy has affected the Girl child academic performance. Also, it will reveal other factors affecting the academic performance of Girl childs. Furthermore, this study will help the parents and the school authority to generate affection, love and provide security and acceptance to the Girl child which in turn helps the society. This study will also help an individual on the kind of the family they should involve themselves in. And to the educationist, education curriculum will be structured to help the children from such home.

            More so, serving as a project that would be discovered that polygamy affect the academic performance of Girl child.

1.3       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

            In carrying out a research work of this nature, constraints are very likely observed. These constraints include transportation problem, the cooperation of the school authority might not be willingly available, the Girl childs might not respond to the questionnaires and where they do some of them might not want the research work to be conducted in their school.

            Also, Girl childs might not want to release their sincere answer due to their state of mind.

            Time factor is another problem; time allocated for the researcher will influence the writing because the researcher will need more time for random visit.

            More so, financial constraint is another limiting factor; it is hoped that finding from the given district can be used to generalize situation in the society at large.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

                                i.            Does the income of parents affects the academic performance of Girl child?

                             ii.            Does the number of wives in a home affect the academic performances of a Girl child?

                           iii.            Does polygamous homes affect the Girl childs academic performances in schools?

                           iv.            Does the parental care, affection and availability of funds affects the academic performance of Girl childs?

                             v.            Does the provision of the essential needs by the parents affects the academic performances of Girl childs?

                           vi.            Does the atmosphere in a polygamous home affect Girl childs academic performance.

1.5       HYPOTHESIS

            Based on the identified problems of the study. The following null hypothesis will be tested.

            Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Girl child background and their academic performances in school.

            Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the number of wives in the home and Girl child academic performance.

1.6       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

In  undertaken  this research work the range of the study among others include the effects of polygamous marriage on the academic performances of Girl childs in primary school.

            It will also focus on whether Girl childs from monogamous homes fared better academically.

            If the above is true according to the research it will then proffered recommend that for better performances of Girl childs monogamous marriages should be encouraged. Its coverage is within Ewekoro Local Government only and not any other local government in Ogun state.

            The scope of the problem will dwell within the limits of determining the extent to which marriages and offspring’s of the various marriages fared academically. It will also look into other factors, which may mare or make Girl childs academically.

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

POLYGAMY:           The custom of having more than one wife at the same time. The circumstance, facts or event that influence, cause or explain something. A persons social class, family status, level of education e.t.c.

FAMILY:                   A group consisting of one or two parents and their children. A group of people that are related by blood.

ACADEMICS:         Connected with education, especially studying in schools and universities.

INCOME:                 Money received over certain period especially as payment for work as interest on investment. Money received from work, business.

PERFORMANCE: An action or achievement, considered in relation to how successful it is. The ability to operate, capable of high effectiveness.


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