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1.1 Background of the study
The A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting is more essential than the quantity spent with the child. For instance a parent can spend the entire afternoon with his or her child but the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not demonstrating interest towards the child. Parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond to the demand of their children. Parenting practices are specific behaviours, while parenting styles represent broader patterns of parenting practices. There are many different theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest. Children go through different stages in life; therefore parents create their own parenting styles from a combination of factors that evolve overtime as children begin to develop their own personalities.
In sociology and psychology, self-esteem reflects a person’s overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs for example, “I am competent”, “I am worthy” and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame.
Smith and Mackie (2007) defined it by saying the self concept; it is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative of the self, as in how we feel about it” self-esteem is attractive as a social psychological construct because researchers have conceptualized it as an influential prediction of certain outcomes, such as academic achievement, happiness, satisfaction in marriage and relationship, and criminal behaviour.
Within Western Cultures, self-esteem consistently has been demonstrated to be directly related with parenting styles characterized by low levels of acceptance and high levels of over protection (i.e. affectionless control). Although in traditional collectivist cultures there may be a preference for this parenting style, within a strong collectivist framework. It is not thought to have a negative impact on self-esteem.
Self-esteem, defined as the extent to which an individual believes himself or herself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy (Coopersmith, 1981), consistently has been found to relate with psychological states and behaviours (Cramer, 1989; Dishivn, Patterson & Reid, 1988; Workman & Beer, 1989). The importance of self-esteem as a global indictor of psychological health has encouraged research into the influence of variables such as parenting on self-esteem development.
As noted by the Basic Behavioural Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health Council (1996), the parent-child relationship represents the earliest and most enduring social relationship of the human life span. Accordingly, the quality of the parent-child relationship has been argued to have a significant impact on the competence, resilience and well-being of all individuals. (Basic Behavioural Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health Council, 1996). Two fundamental aspects of parenting have been identified as important for children’s adjustment or maladjustment. The first of these has been identified as warmth, nurturance and acceptance or responsibility. This dimension has been shown to be bipolar. It has defined by parental affection, empathy and closeness on one pole and coldness, indifference and neglect on the other (Baumrind, 1968; Coopersmith, 1967). The second dimension has been defined by the amount and control, structure and involvement that caregivers display toward their children. This dimension has been differentiated in terms of effective, emphatic and developmentally appropriate management versus manipulative or punitivecare giving (Maccoby& Martin, 1983). Parenting continues to exist as the most demanding and taxing yet satisfying, pleasing and valuable experience which proves to be rewarding in its own perplexing ways. ‘Parenting style’ is a term that emphasizes on the parental actions and reactions towards their child which involves beliefs they carry, expectations they have and show values and beliefs on how actually parents help, support, take care of the child and how they punish the child. There are four main styles of parenting given by child development professionals globally: Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Self-Esteem is one’s sense of self and self-evaluation. Baumrind has documented specific association and relationship that exists between styles of parenting and self-esteem. (Williams, Family educator and counselor) in her article mentions that for a healthy family life it is very much important for the parents to develop and practice consistent intra as well as inter-parenting. In Ugbowo, Fathers’ generally are more physically distant as compared to mothers and father-child relationship generally is marked by obedience and compliance while most of the time of mothers is spent taking care of their children (Ranganath and Ranganath,1997). Overall, Much of research work is required in the area of parenting in South Asian families especially in India since researches based on predominant parenting styles practiced and their effect of self-esteem of children and adolescents in Ugbowa are scarce.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been discovered overtime that self-esteem has been consistently related with parenting styles characterized by relatively low levels of acceptance. This study will investigate the various known parenting styles and how it affects children and adolescents both positively and negatively.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The following are the purposes of this study;
1. To identify various parenting styles adopted in Ugbowo Community.
2. To investigate how these parenting styles affected self-esteem.
3. The study will also find out how parenting styles and self-esteem influences.
4. To find out the awareness of Ugbowo Community on parenting style.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: there is no significant relationship between parenting style and children self-esteem
H1: there is a significant relationship between parenting style and children self-esteem
H02: parenting style does not influence children self-esteem in Ugbowo
H2: parenting style does influence children self-esteem in Ugbowo
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the level of awareness of Ugbowo Community on parenting style?
2. What is the various adopted parenting style?
3. Does parenting style affect self-esteem?
4. Does parenting style affect academic performance?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research is limited to the influence of parenting style on self-esteem amongst adolescents in Ugbowo Community, Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. It has a population of 38, 462 people.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the importance of this study;
1. It will help to examine the relationship between parenting style and self-esteem in the development of the family and community.
2. The study will also highlight how adolescent cope with mechanism of adjustment and modification.
3. The study also helps us to know the role of psychologists/sociologist in the development of a child/adolescent and the family as a whole.
4. The study will add to existing knowledge as the subject matter.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following were constraints encountered with regards to the study:
1. Getting materials from the internet and other sources proved difficult.
2. Unwillingness on the part of respondents to provide necessary information.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Influence: The power to affect, control or manipulate something or someone; the ability to change the development of fluctuating things such as conduct, thoughts or decisions.
ii. Parenting: Is the process of promoting and support the physical, emotional, social, financial and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship.
iii. Style: A manner of doing things, especially in a fashionable one.
iv. Self-Esteem: Is defined as the extent to which an individual believes himself or herself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy (Coopersmith, 1981).
v. Psychology: Is defined as the study of the human mind. It could also be the mental, emotional and behavioural characteristics pertaining to a specified person, group or activity.
vi. Social: It refers to a characteristic of living organism as applied to populations of humans and other animals.
vii. Attitude: In psychology, an attitude is an expression of favour or disfavour toward a person, place, thing or event (the attitude object). An attitude is an evaluation of an attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive.
viii. Beliefs: Is the mental acceptance of a claim as truth regardless of supporting or contrary empirical evidence.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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