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1.1 Background of the study
Parents are very influential in the lives of their children. They have the ability to shape, sustain and develop children who will be active, diligent, creative and tolerant, through their positive involvement in the learning process and educational activities. Parents are also capable of repressing and destroying the motivation and ability of their children through neglect and in difference to their achievements. UNICEF (2009:12) stated that, a key to children doing well in school is for parents‟ to be involved in their education”.Millions of children around the world are growing up without one or both of their parents. Many are at risk of separation, due to the impact of poverty, disability and such crises as natural disaster and armed conflict. Children without parental care find themselves at a higher risk of discrimination, inadequate care, abuse and exploitation, and their well-being is often insufficiently monitored. Inadequate care environments can impair children’s emotional and social development and leave them vulnerable to exploitation, sexual abuse and physical violence (Gadsden, 2003).The effect of parent care on a child at any given time cannot be over emphasized. The home is very germane and crucial to a child’s wellbeing and development in later life. Family is the primary cell of society where the child’s upbringing must begin since his birth, still in cradle. According to V. Hugo, the person’s principles established since childhood are like letters engraved in the bark of a young tree, which grow, enlarge with it making its integral part. Therefore, right beginning makes the most important part of upbringing/education. Nobody ever said that children were easy to raise. They don’t come with guidelines or instructions, and they certainly don’t come with a pause button. What they do come with is a crucial set of physical and emotional needs that must be met. Failure of the parents to meet these specific needs can have wide-ranging and long-lasting negative effects especially on academic performance. Epistein, (2001). This is because parent in the home are children first teacher. As a child move from infant to toddler and then to a preschooler, she learns how to speak, listen, write and read which latter develop the child to achieve academically. The influence of parents on children school achievement is well documented in numerous studies. Gadsden (2003) says greater parental involvement at early stage in children’s learning, positively affects the child’s school performance including higher academic performance. Harderves (1998) review that family whose children are doing well in school exhibit the following characters: Establish a daily family routine by providing time and a quite place to study with the children and assigning responsibility for house hold chores.Monitor out-of-school activities, for example setting limits on television watching, reduce time of playing, monitor the groups of friends the pupils walk with.Encourage children’s development and progress in school; that is maintaining a worm and supportive home, showing interest in children’s progress at school, helping him or her with home work, discussing the value of a good education and future career with children.Izzo et al (1999) children from kindergarten through to grade 3 in a 3 year longitudinal research programme. Teachers rated four forms of involvement; provision of all the material needs of the child; frequency of parent-teacher contact; quality of parent teacher interaction; participation in educational activities in the home; and participation in school activities. These factors, as well as parental care variables were examined to find any relationship they might have with academic performance of primary school pupils.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The effect of parent care on a child at any given time cannot be over emphasized. The home is very germane and crucial to a child’s wellbeing and development in later life. Family is the primary cell of society where the child’s upbringing must begin since his birth, still in cradle. According to the person’s principles established since childhood are like letters engraved in the back of a young tree, which grow, enlarge with it making its integral part. Therefore, right beginning makes the most important part of upbringing/education. Nobody ever said that children were easy to rise. They don’t come with guidelines or instructions, and they certainly don’t come with a pause button. What they do come with is a crucial set of physical and emotional needs that must be met. Failure of the parents to meet these specific needs can have wide-ranging and long-lasting negative effects especially on academic performance
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is influence of parental monitoring on girl child and its impact on academic performance. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
1. To determine the influence of parent ona Girl-Child Education
2. To examine the relationship between parental influence on girl child and academic performance of the child
3. To examine the parental perception on monitoryof girl child
4. To ascertain parents’ responsibility toward their children education.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were postulated and tested;
H0:there are no parental perceptions on monitory a girl child
H1: there are parental perceptions on monitory a girl child
H02:there are no relationship between parental influence on girl child education and academic performance
H2:there are relationship between parental influence on girl child education and academic performance
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to ministry of education and parents. This study would provide a feedback to parents‟ through which they would be able to gauge themselves to see whether or not they are within the realm of the larger society as far as parental monitory of Girl-Child Education is concerned. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers influence of parental monitory on girl child and it on academic performance.The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFLUENCE: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.
PARENT: In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child (where "child" refers to offspring, not necessarily age). A biological parent is a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum. Parents are first-degree relatives and have 50% genetic meet.
GIRL CHILD: The Girl Child. Though life for the girl child is steadily improving, many are still subjected to horrific practices, such as female genital mutilation, son preference often resulting in female infanticide as well as child marriage, sexual exploitation and abuse.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE:Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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