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Title page   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Approval page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Declaration         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Dedication -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        --       -        -        v

Table of content -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Abstract     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        viii


Background of the study       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

Statement of the problem      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

Purpose of the study    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

Significance of the study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

Scope of the study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

Research question        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8


The development of safety standard in Nigeria

and factory act 1958-1990   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

Causes of accidents in workshop   -        -        -        -        -        -        11

Types of accident that commonly occur in technical workshop   -        15

Strategies for enforcement of safety in technical workshop          -        -        16

Summary of review of literature     -        -        -        -        -        -        17


Area of the study          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

Research design  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

Population of study      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

Sampling techniques    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

Administration of the instrument   -        -        -        -        -        -        21

Validation   of the instrument         -        -        -        -        -        -        21

Method of data analysis        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

Decision rule       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

CHAPTER FOUR:               DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                23

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY DISCUSSION, FINDING AND                                                      RECOMMENDATION

Re-statement of the problem -        -        -        -        -        -        29

Summary of procedure         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

Major findings     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

Implication of the findings     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

Conclusion          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

Limitation of that study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

Recommendation of the study        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

References -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

Appendix   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35


The study title “Improving the safety skills of students in the workshop department of education technical Kaduna Polytechnic. To accomplish this study four(4) research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study was carried out in the department of education technical workshops and the research design adopted was descriptive survey design. The population of the study consist of the 80 respondents made up of 60 students and 20 technicians of department of education technical structure questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and the instrument  was personally collected by the researchers. Means statistic was employed to analyze the data relating to the research questions. Based on the finding of the study the following recommendations were made, students should be more careful while working in workshop. Department technician should ensure that tools and equipment are adequately maintained in the workshops and new students in the department should be given workshop safety orientation before they start using the workshop tools and equipment in department education technician Kaduna polytechnic, Kaduna.



Background of the Study

It has been observed that a lot of accident that occur in the workshops or industrials because of what Alake, (1998), referred to as lack of safety awareness among workers in both workshops and industrials. The workshop which is the back bone of any functional technical education is according to Simpson, (1998) home of all kinds of materials, the workshop which is the back bone of any functional technical education is according to Simpson (1998) home of all kinds of materials, equipment and tools and machines that move during the process. These pose a danger not only to stop workers but materials, tools, machinery and installation it has became of paramount importance that students should develop good safety consciousness.

Safety consciousness could be defined as the mental awareness of an individual which serve as a guide for his conduct behaviors and event actions to the end that he will be free from injury accident or danger Jadas, (2015). It could also mean mental or emotional guide for personal conduct working and living in highly mechanized world.

Alake, (1988) further stated that safety consciousness of hazard and danger in handling tools, equipment, and materials so as to avoid accident in workshop. Jadas, (2015) stressed that safety consciousness simply means awareness of hazard and alertness to danger. Is an unexpected event that occurs resulting to interruption of the completion of activity as coked by Ajisafe etal (1997) stressed that it is not necessary injury and death to person. Accident are caused by unsafe act of person, unsafe mechanical conditions and unsafe environmental condition or hazards and all students are prone to accident  Jadas, (2015). They can however, be avoided with proper knowledge, skill, and positive safety attitude on the part of individual in the workshop.

Jain, (2008) categories cause of workshop accident as following:

1.     ENVIRONMENT FACTORS: this includes illumination noise, dust, non-ventilation, non cleanliness, temperature extremes etc.

2.     MATERIAL FACTOR: these include broken safety guards, equipment failure, inadequate maintenance, poor distribution of safety signs faulty machine design, leaking values and lack of personal protective equipment

3.     HUMAN FACTORS: it includes ignorance age taking chances, forget fullness, alcoholism fatigue/boredom, careless and personal instability.

Accidents have serious effect upon the individual worker, equipment and product out put. It cause a significant of loss of time to the establishment both man working hours and time to attend to the victim it causes loss of money to the injured especially if he become in capacitated. Jain, (2008) pointed out that accident affect the family of its victim causing an anxiety to members. It becomes worst if the accident is fatal and result to death of its victim, his skills is lost forever, his family is indirectly broken up, his place in the workshop many take some time or gears to be filled by a society at large.

However, accident can be avoided by taking certain measures of safety precaution this is concern of this investigation to assess the extent to which safety is being carried out in the workshop of education technical and the consciousness of their action regarding safety practice in the work shop. Onuoh (2001).

Sara (2004), the ways of avoiding accident in the workshop is classified in three groups follow:

Proper safety instruction which can be done by use of special class room session, safety booklet posters, films safety contact by safety specialist working conditions. Development safety training of workshop instruction enable them practical and impact safety education to the students.

Provision of safety devices and creation of safety work habit on the personalize basis promotion of student participation is safety, finally. A corrective action when safety rules and regulation are ignored.

All these efforts will according to Jain, (2008) result to improved production stability, cost and quality, reduced cost in maintenance and material wastages absentees and medical bills:

It will also boost the students move above all skill according to oxford dictionary, (2009). Is an ability performed certain trade perfectly without mistakes. A skill is a learned capacity to carryout predetermined result often with the minimum out lay of the energy or both skill as a concept has been variously defined by various authors. However, granten by and walefied (1993) defined skills as the expertly carryout an operation dextering and task.

According to Okorie, (2000). skills improves when procedure instruction are matched with performance activities.

The project will consider the students in the department of education technical with implication to safety skill to respective workshop, in additions to general safety laws in workshops. Consideration will be on the improvement safety standard in Nigeria and some aspect of factory act 1958 and 1990 upon which safety rule and regulation are based.

Generally, safety laws in workshop will also be considered with attending safety mode of dressing with emphasis on protection of body feet and face the safety way of lifting heavy and long materials or equipment.

Detail safety and storage of hand tools the objective will also consider safety laws governing the handing of electrical part of machinery and installation.

Safety in handling and storage of inflammable fire out brake prevention detection and firefighting equipment.

Statement of the problem

Despite the enforcement of a safety laws in the school workshops as attended to in a pre-study interview with one of the workshop instructors in the department its being investigated that students still do not abide by it situation Omuation (2001), described as carelessness of students contribute to accident in school workshops resulting to injures of various degree and damage to individual and equipment respectively to be laid off the fate of lack of adequate maintenance of common sight to behold on workshop.

According to Patishiko, (1998), Health and safety have value to every workshop, industrials, and organization be it a large or cottage one as long as it employs labour and it is expected to produce, which a healthy student or worker can offer, and through his satisfaction and well being

Provision of a good working environment, is obviously an important aspect of managements responsibility to it’s numerous students and employees. Developing skills and innovative it is necessary to prevent accident from happening to them that might result in a temporary or permanent (disability) reduction in output. Miner in Ayodele and Wilfred, (2001)

It then becomes a necessary issue of great importance to source for strategies of improving safety skill of students in the workshop of department of education technical in Kaduna Polytechnic

Lack of adequate knowledge and necessary skill by students in terms of safety practice becomes a problem. Safety consciousness and less prevention have been some of the major attributes as a result of our endowment by God of the various organs of perception. Sense of smell, sense of touch, sense of sight, sense of taste and sense of hearing. Along with all these sense is our highly developed brain, Odigure in Ayodele and Wilfred, (2001).

Management, as employers, is required by law in observed as spelt out in the Nigeria factories act of 1990. These acts are meant to guide towards a hazard free working environment or prevention against potential hazards.

Therefore, management, as employers must ensure a workshop environment that protects students from hazards, unhealthy conditions and unsafe acts of other students. Through an effective health and safety programme, it is possible to preserve and even enhance the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of the students Gbadamosi in Ayodele and Wilfred, (2001)

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study is to improve safety skill of students of department of education technical Kaduna Polytechnic, specifically the study intends to find out:

1.      Find out the causes of accident in the workshops of education technical.

2.      To find out how accident can be reduced in the workshops of education technical

3.      The study will find out the nature of accident in the workshop of the department of technical

4.      To also find out the strategies to adoption to ensure the students compliance of safety laws in workshops of education technical.

Significance of the study

The finding of this study will be of immense benefits to the following:

1.      The Students: Its benefits to the students helps in explaining the need to obey in totality all safety laws and regulations in the workshop in order to reduce the rate of accident.

2.      Technicians/instructors: It will also benefit the technician/instructors with strategies that could be adopted to improve students obedience department to safety laws.

3.      The Department: the department will produce a full baked graduate who are well equipped in practical and educated in safety aspect

4.      Kaduna Polytechnic: In Kaduna polytechnic will spend less in maintaining of maintenance of personnel, machine tools and equipment.

5.      Society at large: and society will experience less industrial accidents and will have a more research area to make recommendation based, on finding of the study.   

Scope of the study

The study is intended to students of the department of education technical under which the study will investigate the causes of accident in the workshops. The type of accident that are common in measures that could be taken to reduce the, rate of accident and to ascertain the strategies to be adopted to improve student obedience to safety rules in workshops.

Research question

The research question is formulated to guide the study as follows:

1.      What are the causes of accident on the workshops of education technical?

2.      What is the nature of accident in the workshops of education technical?

3.      How can accidents be reduced in workshop of education technical?

4.      What are the strategies to be adopted to ensure compliance to safety laws enforcement on workshop of education  technical? 

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