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Background to the Study
the issue of juvenile delinquency has become a great concern to Nigerian secondary schools, especially in Kaduna South Local Government Area. Studies have shown that juvenile delinquency is rampant among secondary school students due to a number of cases which, according to Adeshina (2012) include; parents’ attitudes towards their children, the community, social class, frustration, peer group, foreign ideas, poverty, illiteracy, among others. Delinquency is basically a legal and relative term which refers to the breaking of the law of a particular country. An act therefore may make an adolescent delinquent in one country, but not necessarily in another. However, there are certain behaviuors such as stealing and killing that are considered as violating the social and moral norms of most societies.
Nigerians are disturbed and anxious as they are concerned about the problem of delinquency in which today’s youths involve themselves. The issue of juvenile delinquency is being discussed on television, radio, newspapers and journals and recently on the internet. This cankerworm seems to survive despite efforts made by religious and moral education teachers to eliminate them through the inculcation of moral values in schools.
Combs (2010) defined delinquency as a relatively minor violation of legal or moral code by children or adolescents. However, no delinquent act should be considered as minor because any act of delinquency can result to serious damage. Juvenile delinquency according to Margret (2011), is such behaviour by a young person (usually 16 or 18 years depending on the state code) that can bring him to the attention of a court. In a broadest sense according to Johnson (2015), a delinquent act is any behaviour of a young boy or girl that can be objected to by more senior members of a society.
In every society, there are sets of norms which members are expected to observe, however, not every member of the society abides by those norms. Members who live contrary to the set norms are referred to as delinquents. Juvenile delinquency according to Combs (2012) initially has to do with children’s offences, misconduct or crime for which, it is thought, they are not directly responsible. Bello (2010) observed that delinquent behaviours have assumed an alarming proportion in Nigeria.
Juvenile delinquency is a social problem in secondary schools which this research aims at finding out its impact on students’ academic performance with reference to Social Studies Education in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. .
Social Studies Education as a schools subject originated in America in the 20th century. After the Second World War, there was the need to reestablish and promote good human understanding and relationship among the peoples of the world. In Nigeria, Social Studies Education came as an answer to specific problems Fadeiye (2010). In the late 1960s, most Nigerians agreed that the schools must be Nigerian in outlook rather than emphasizing foreign ideas. According to Fafunwa (2007), the colonial system of education alienated Nigerians from their cultural environment. It was thought by Nigerian educators that through Social Studies Education, the love of the country could be kindled in the Nigerian child in such a way that they would develop a strong attachment to their country and to further expose them to the problems in the society and equip them with the necessary skills needed for their survival.
Social Studies Education as defined by Ololobou (2009) is an organized, integrated study of man and his environment both physical and social emphasizing on cognitive, functional skills and desirable attitudes and actions for the purpose of producing effective citizenry.
It is in view of this that the researcher chose to study “the impact of juvenile delinquency on academic performance in secondary schools particularly of Social Studies Education students in Kaduna North Local Government Area.
Statement of the Problem
Social Studies Education aims at enabling the Nigerian child to develop the spirit of patriotism, tolerance and other types of productive qualities of a citizen. Unfortunately juvenile delinquency has constituted a problem that has led to student’s attrition, late arrival at school, and low academic performance.
Other related behaviours among students that are also of concern include, aggression, theft burglary, destruction of school property, truancy, rudeness and sexual harassment. These negative behaviours are observed amongst male and female students of different age categories and locations.
The prevailing delinquent behaviours among students and the effect of these on the society led to the choice of the present research topic to enable the researcher investigate what impact juvenile delinquency has on student’s academic performance in Kaduna North Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to find out the problems of juvenile delinquency on students’ academic performance in Social Studies Education in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Specifically, the focus of the research is
based on the following objectives:
i) To find out the impact of juvenile delinquency on Academic performance of Social Studies achievement test in secondary schools.
ii) To ascertain the extent to which the teaching and learning of Social Studies Education in secondary schools can curb juvenile delinquency.
iii) To find workable measures to minimizing the problem of juvenile delinquency in secondary schools.
Significance of the Study
This study is justified by the increasing need to solve social problems in our society and specifically the problem of juvenile delinquency in secondary schools. According to Ololobou (2012), Social Studies Education emphasizes functional skills and desirable attitudes and actions for the purpose of producing an effective citizenry.
In view of the prevailing undesirable behaviours in youths, this study will expose the students to the harmful effects of delinquency on academic performance and thus serve as a cautionary measure for students.
Through this study the Social Studies Education teachers at secondary school level will know how to practically use the content of Social Studies curriculum to instill desirable behaviour in students, correct and remold the delinquent students among them.
The study will serve as an important reference to researchers who wish to further study in this area.
The following research questions were drawn from the statement of the
problem presented above:
1. What is the impact of juvenile delinquency on Academic performance of Social Studies achievement test in secondary schools?
ii) To what extent is the teaching and learning of Social Studies Education in secondary schools can curb juvenile delinquency?
iii) What are the workable measures to minimizing the problem of juvenile delinquency in secondary schools?
Scope of the Study
This study is on problems of juvenile delinquency on academic performance of junior secondary school Social Studies Education students in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. This study is also delimited to secondary school Social Studies Education students.
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