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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The activities of the home videos has increased overtime in Nigeria; before we go into main topic of discussion we will like to understand clearly what home videos or films are; well film is kind of story recorded although most at times fictional as a set of moving pictures or images which is usually shown on the television or cinema. It could also be defined as a shut of flexible plastic that is sensitive to light for the use of photography. Film could also be defined as a set of moving images which is usually produced by recording the activities with cameras or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effect. Films could also be seen as a source of popular entertainment, a power method of educating or indoctrinating people especially youths.
According to Cook (2007) stated that films are made up of sources of individual images which is usually called frames. When these images are rapidly shown in succession, a viewer has the illusion. The role films play in our daily has been seen from educating the masses in the society to creating job opportunities for the people.
Chamber dictionary of the twentieth century defines film as a thin skin of mainframe coated with a very sensitive kind of substance for taking photographs of a ribbon of celluloid prepared with such a coating for instantaneous photographs for the protection by cinematography a moving picture series.
In as much as films plays a significant role in educating the general public it still have a negative impact on the lives of youth in our societies today depending on the type or categories of films. It is very true that some movies are very educational, while some only portrays violence, prostitution, robbery, kidnapping and other form of anti-social behavior.
It is evident that the negative impact of home videos is found in about 70 percent of Nigeria youths; youths now put into practice what they learn from home videos.
It has a lot of emphasis on interpersonal violence and acquisitive lawlessness, a role both in inciting aggressive behaviours. Youths learn to be aggressive by imitating the actors much as they learn cognitive and social skill by imitation as children. Youths exposed to violence reveals the danger of demonstrating socially undesirable behaviour and criminal techniques. Sexual and romantic films have a profound effect. Sexual passions are aroused and amateur prostitution is aggravated. The proliferation of cheap, dehumanized sex and violence in films are bound over the long run to have a harmful effect not merely in encouraging more violent actions but gradually deadening the sensibilities of those exposed to such films.
According to Frank Aig Imoukhuede (1995) stated that many Nigerians have complained of thepoisonous content of films shown on the screen in Nigeria.
Parents and the federal government of Nigeria has put in so much effort to re-direct the youths in our societies towards embracing good deeds but the efforts prove abortive.
In the chase for moral and good deeds in the society the study wishes to use the youths in Kaduna State as the case study.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF HOME VIDEOS (THE NIGERIA EXPERIENCE)
The first motion picture was screened in Nigeria on Monday August 12, 1903. It was shown to an exciting Nigeria audience at Glover Merumorial Halliri Lagos. As Lagos standard announced “The cinematographs exhibition which is made at the Glove Memorial Hall from Monday night and is to continue for the nights is the talk of the town”. The film was shown by Messri’s Balboa of Barcelona, Spain under management of the Nigerian Herbert Macaulay. Although ticket buyers considered the gate fee of three shillings high, it was discovered after the first night at the film was worth the price. The standard later suggested lowering the price so that everybody in Lagos may see for herself, by middle of September 1903, Mrs Balboa closed her exhibition in Lagos and left to continue showing in other west African countries. On her departure, an enterprising European merchant, Stanley Jones, began to show films in the same Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos. He showed his first film in November 1903. One of the most thrilling films Stanley showed was about Alake of Abeokuta, a famous Nigerian ruler. After the independence, the film unit became a division of federal ministry of information with the main objectives of producing and exhibiting documentaries. The Nigerian rural film unit experiment was carried by the Colonial film unit propaganda section in 1952. Therefore, it is emphatically clear that the type of media content (video film) that are exposed to the adolescent will also affect their sense of reasoning and action. The film being audio visual in nature have immense role to play in moulding the behaviours of the adolescent
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The study impact of home videos on the lives of youths in Nigeria; recently the federal government, parents and rest of the public has drawn the attention of the general public to the high rate of moral decadence amongst youth in Nigeria. The Nollywood industry over the years has played a significant role in the dissemination ofinformation about her people from old times to this day; having a strong effect on the societies in Nigeria.
Studies have it that the most interesting movies tends to be the most violent in terms of arm robbery, killings, prostitution and drugs and their effect is seen in the lives of youths as they try to imitate their favourite actor or actress thereby bringing the negative effect to the society they belong.
The problem is a serious one that needs attention; if not handled properly; Nigerian youths will become morally bankrupt
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the impact of home videos (films) to young youths in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. To examine the impact of home video on social and cultural promotion in Kaduna State
2. To examine the role of parents in the control of the negative impact of home videos on the lives of young youths in Nigeria
3. To examine the effect of home videos on the fashion style of youths in Kaduna State
4. To proffer solution to the above problems
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The study came up with the following research questions in order to ascertain the above stated objectives. The research questions are:
1. What is the impact of home video on social and cultural promotion in Kaduna State?
2. What are the roles of parents in the control of the negative impact of home videos on the lives of young youths in Nigeria?
3. What is the effect of home videos on the fashion style of youths in Kaduna State?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: home videos has no significant impact on the young youths in Nigeria
H1:home videos has significant impact on the young youths in Nigeria
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study will be of immense benefit to the entire Kaduna State, the societies in Nigeria, parents, schools and youths as it will reveal the impact of home videos on young youths in Nigeria. Finally the study will be a of great importance to other researchers that wishes to carry out similar research concerning the impact of home videos on young youths in Nigeria
1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study impact of home videos (films) on Nigeria young youths is limited to the entire Kaduna state as it will cover the all the impact of home videos on young youths in Nigeria
1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Mass Media: This term refers to the various means of communication to the public. It includes radio, televisions, etc, but here it is used to explain films and home videos. It is called mass because the message reaches out to more than one person at a time. It is directed to a large dispersed audience, which is how home video operates.
Youth: This term refers to the state or time of being young. It is the period between childhood and adult age.
Audience: Is dispersed group of listeners or spectators, who view home videos.
Nollywood: Is a name given to the film or movie industry in Nigeria. It covers actors, producers, directors, costumiers, marketer, etc.
Home Video: This is a term used to explain the films that were made by Nollywood in which people buy or rent them and watch them at home.
Aggressive Behaviour: It refers to hostile attitudes that are an unfriendly behaviour.
Violence: It is an action that uses physical force intended to hurt, damage or kill.
Film: It is a story or event recorded by a camera operated by people which is shown on television.
Movies: Here it is used to explain home/video and film. Three of the terms were used interchangeably.
Cook (2007). Audience Views on Portrayal of Women in Nigerian Home Videos. BSc. Project, University of Lagos. Department of Mass Communication.
Frank Aig Imoukhuede (1995). Video in the Lives of Nigerian Children: Some SocialCultural Implications. In African Media Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 63– 74
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