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1.1 Background of the Study
The role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy (Rosen, 2013). Most experts in the field of education agreed that, when properly used, information and communication technology hold great promise to improve teaching and learning in addition to shaping workforce opportunities.
Poole (2014) has indicated that computer illiteracy is now regarded as the new illiteracy. This has actually gingered a new and strong desire to equip schools with computer facilities and qualified personal necessary to produce technologically proficient and efficient students in developed countries of the world. There is no doubt that computer can aid the instructional process and facilitate students’ learning. Many studies have found positive effect associated with technology aided instruction (Burnett, 2012).
In the more advanced industrialized nations, there has been a staggering amount of research and publication related to ICT use for educational purposes during the past decade. Today, nearly everyone in the industrialized nations gained access to ICT and the purchase of computers for school use in such nations as the United States has been increasing in such a pace that is difficult to keep track of how many computer machines are now in American schools (Harper, 2011).
Social studies in several nations of the world are essentially introduced to meet specific needs and aspirations of their existing environment. The Nigerian society is not an exception. As such, social studies can be described as a solution to nation’s problem of integration. This partly explains why social studies have been given a place of pride at all levels of education. The priority of social studies is the teaching of the course as a core subject in primary and junior secondary schools. It is offered as a single-major and double major courses in most Colleges of Education. In various Universities, Social Studies can be studies from the first –degree level to the doctorate level 9Aminu, 2009).
However, experts have expressed concern on certain constraints being faced in the teaching of social studies in Nigerian schools. The reason is attributed to lack of professionalism, lack appropriate teaching methods and poor innovative method in the curriculum, this implies that the goals of the curriculum must be restructured along side with the rapid technological age of the society.
In order to move in the same pace with the present technological era, the curriculum must be seen as a reconstruction of knowledge and experience systematically developed with the guidance of the school or relevant agencies which will enable the learner to have better mastering of learning experience for the learners and the society well- being (Akinsola, 2010). Curriculum according to Pamojuro (2011) must be a reflection of what people think, feel, believe or do. Curriculum serve as a mirror of what the goal, perhaps, of education should look like.
Information and communication technology (ICT is one of the subject areas that has witnessed important innovation. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) was formally introduced in the secondary school system in 2004 (FRN, 2004). The purpose of ICT in Junior secondary school system include access to information development of systematic thinking, team work among students, availability of self training materials, student centered-curriculum makes access to education more equal and construction of instructional materials (Okojie, 2009).
Information and communication technology integration in schools is needed in order to accomplish many purposes and improve the quality of lessons in all subject areas including social studies. Information and Communication Technology pervades various aspects of our daily lives such as work, business, teaching, learning, leisure and health. ICT leads all processes based on information; every individual in the society should become technology competent. By this it means that all school whether primary, secondary school or tertiary institution have to be equipped with necessary information and communication technology (ICT) in order to provide the next generation with the needed tools and resources for access and use and to attain the expected skills.
Norris (2013) uphold that the importance of accessibility as “teachers use of technology for curricular purpose is almost exclusively a function of their access to that technology”. Merely providing schools with hard ware, software and in-service training is not enough. Any in service training needs follow-up support, peer coaching and peer dialogue to ensure successful utilization of new technologies. There must be active involvement of the teachers concerned in the whole change process so that there should be an element of “ownership of the innovation.
Becker (2012) reported a comprehensive survey of the instructional uses of computers in American public and non-public schools. The report suggested that over one million computers were in American elementary and secondary schools and that more than fifteen million students used them during 1985. The report also says half-a-million teacher used computers during he same period and that half of U.S. secondary schools (about 16,500 schools) owned 15 or more computers.
In Britain, the story is the same as the wider availability of computers in schools was made possible through government funding largely through the Local Education Authorities (LEA). Visscher et al (2013) reported that following the Education Reform Act in 1988, the central government made available $325 million, over time, to promote the use of computers in school administration and management. Just as the United States and Britain have been budgeting huge sum of money for cyber education, so have other developed nations been doing same.
Even many developing nations have embraced ICT. In Africa, concerted efforts have been made by many governments to initiate Internet connectivity and technology training programs. Such programs link schools around the world that in order to improve education, enhance cultural understanding and develop skills that youths need for securing jobs in the 21st century.
In Uganda, an interconnectivity programme known as “Uganda School Net” is dedicated to extending educational technology throughout Uganda (Carlson & Firpo, 2011). In Senegal, teachers and students are using computers extensively as information tools. These programs in African countries mentioned are supported by their government through the Ministries of Education.
In a rapidly changing world of global market competition, automation, and increasing democratization, basic education is necessary for an individual to have the capacity and capability to access and apply information. Such ability and capability must find bearing in information and communication technology in the global village. The Economic Commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and effectively utilize information is no longer a luxury but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing countries, especially in Africa, are already on the wrong side of the digital divide in the educational use of ICT.
Unfortunately, there are a lot of setback of ICT utilizations and implementation in secondary school curriculum in Nigeria. This therefore, hindering the full realization of the goals of information and communications Technology (ICT). Thus, this research work focuses on the impact ICT on social studies in selected Junior Secondary schools in Kajuru Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today, as the educational sector is faced with series of changes and reforms, it is good to reflect on matters concerned with social studies and the dissemination of social studies knowledge and lessons. Numerous teaching strategies have been developed which correspond to the accommodation of students' need and diverse learning method. One of such strategy involves the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
The use of ICT in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that will assist in imbibing in them the required capacity for the worth of work.
Investigations reveal that many learners at the junior secondary schools in Kaduna State strongly detest the manners in which the Social Studies teachers handle and deliver Social Studies knowledge and lessons.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the use of technology in managing and processing information with the use of electronic computer system and computer soft ware to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. Social Studies on its own requires observation and knowledge to solve natural problems.
Oshodi (2009) stales that awareness towards the use of communication technology is increasing in the classroom in the developing world such that mere verbalization or over verbalization of words alone in the room to communicate ideas, skills and attitude to educate learners is futile.
Angaye (2005) noted that the problem of information technology illiteracy was a serious one among teachers in the country as it cuts across primary, secondary schools and tertiary institutions. He said that many teachers in the country did not have basic computer skills and noted that the problem was a hindrance to efforts at achieving the use of computers for educational purposes in schools.
Busari (2006) is of the view that poor reading skills of social studies and technology students, the state of laboratory facilities, death of social studies text books affect effective teaching and learning of social studies subjects.
If social studies teachers and students in Junior secondary schools are exposed to video and computer usage in classroom teachings, it would bring about an impact in teaching and learning of social studies.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact ICT on social studies in selected Junior Secondary schools in Kajuru Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Specifically, it will look to:
1. availability and accessibility of ICT resources in teaching and learning of
2. Users ability of ICT resources and student’s learning in junior secondary
3. To examine the Factors affecting the teaching and learning of ICT in Junior secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
1. To what extent does availability and accessibility of ICT resources enhance teaching and learning of Social Studies?
2. To what extent does ICT resources affects students’ learning in junior secondary schools?
3. What factors are affecting the teaching and learning of ICT in Junior secondary schools?
1. That there is no significant difference on the confidence of teachers using
ICT in the teaching and learning process.
2. That there is no significant difference on the prospects of ICT in the
classroom teaching and learning.
3. That there is significant difference on the factors are affecting the teaching
and learning of ICT in Junior secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is considered that the research is potentially of considerable importance, for a number of reasons:
1. It will help to support policy makers in the Ministry of Education in Nigeria and also teachers in developing ICT use within schools.
2. It will provide an opportunity to compare the views of teachers, students, and policy-makers on ICT use in Nigerian schools.
3. It will support educational administrators and policy makers in choosing the appropriate methods of managing changes associated with ICT use in the educational system.
4. It will be considered to be the first study in Nigeria which takes into consideration the different aspects of the application of ICT in the educational system.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work is centred on the impact ICT on social studies in selected Junior Secondary schools in Kajuru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It is delimited to the teachers and junior students within the study area. It is hoped that the prospects of using ICT in Social Studies would have been acquired by the learners in the due course.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The study had encountered a number of constraints in the event that some of the findings of the research do not happen to be accurate. The reason should therefore be attributed to some of the factors, however less relevant effort have been made so far towards making this research findings as authentic as in other research.
Notably among these constraints includes the following administration, this is the effort of research towards data collection as noted in non-challant attitude exhibited by the respondents, low return rate of questionnaire despite all frantic effort to retrieved them.
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