GENDER INEQUALITY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES AMONG STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CHIKUN GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

GENDER INEQUALITY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES AMONG STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CHIKUN GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

The Provision of quality and standard education according to the National Policy on education (2004) is a primary objective of setting a standard in Nigerian educational system. Students academic performance in secondary school should not be compromised by any standard irrespective of gender inequality. Provision of quality education should therefore be a central focus by all relevant stakeholders in the educational sector by both the developed and developing nations of the world. Academic standard is no doubt a gate way towards the developing of any nation. Kokar (2015), opined that gender inequality is regarded as an imbalance among male and female individuals in the society. It is therefore an expected situation that with regards to an imbalance of male and female students in secondary education/schools, there will be significant influence in the academic performance among male and female students.

There is no universally accepted operational definition for gender inequality among students in secondary schools, while some authors undertake personal effort to trace the history of gender in Nigerian society, others reflected on its influence among students in secondary schools. Gender inequality has been an aged long issue right from colonial era and creation of human beings on earth till date. Provision of education in the society has remained a weapon for acquiring skills for human development with relevant knowledge and capacity building.

Everest (2014), asserts that education development and academic achievement of students are put in place to improve the educational system and to bring about balance in gender inequality among students in secondary schools.

Gender inequality among students in secondary schools has been adduced as impartial issue to be recognized in a variety of areas of students academy and cases of gender inequality became an issue that needs urgent concern because, males and female students in secondary schools who were well liked by different groups of people usually displayed higher leve1 ego development and secure attachment as well as better interactions with their mothers, fathers and friends.

Allen (2016) reported that gender inequality susceptibility to peer pressure predicted future response to negative or positive academic achievement. In most cases, some group of Nigerian students either male or female rated themselves as high or less competent in their academic performance in the school system.

Evidence in interaction purports that there is the tendency to observe some negative or positive consequences in gender inequality among students in secondary schools. Rogas and Clement (2011), claimed that some male or female students in the school environment were less high proportions of friends who demonstrated pro – social behaviors. So are characteristics of gender inequality a way? Students may be differently affected by their peers. The one on one friendship among male and female students were mostly characterized by low quality and satisfaction and behavior in the society as well as their academic activities. In the same vain/way the development of gender inequality among students in secondary school evolved due to unwillingness among students to ignore their superiority or skills learning for the sake having negatively affected academic achievement (Caldwell, 2011).

 In another development Fulligen (2015), found no gender variation in the long term effects of extreme poor academic achievement. Therefore, academic among males and female students in secondary schools were more likely to encourage behaviours among male and female that will enhance academic performance of these groups of individuals in the society.

The opposite was two in groups that were lower in academic performance although with no interference to inequality in gender among male or female students in secondary schools, negative or positive behaviours and low academic performance were usually observed both in academic performance and social abilities. In the final analysis, evidence in iterative in gender inequality suggests strongly the influence of social interaction between male and female students and their relationship between academic performance and the society, but what is however not cleared is which of the following social and academic acceptance indices namely social responsibility, social behavior, social popularity, friendship is responsible for the prediction of poor or good academic performance.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

In the course of students deve1opment academic performance and social interaction is a relevant factor. The process of providing education and excelling in academics, gender inequality sets in the academic performance among students has been a crucial issue of education. In most cases either male or female students in secondary school usually engage in keen competition. The primary responsibility of the school is to produce students who are worthy in academics and characters and in learning to benefits themselves as well as the society. In the school system, gender issues has became services that needs to be addressed. Inequality among male and female students has also been a topical issue to be discussed and this development has affected their level of academic differences.  A student gender make up influence begins at the very state of formal education.

Inspite of huge investment in education, the complains concerning gender inequality and poor students academic performance is on the increase. In an attempt to curb this trend numerous studies had been carried out with most of these studies focused on stakeholders effectiveness, teachers teaching efficiency, poor/inferiority complex, and learning environment, with low emphasis on gender in balance in view of the important role gender plays in the academic activities. There is however the need to determine the social and academics.

Indices have predicted that there is a poor performance of students academic in relation to gender inequalities among students in secondary schools. The policy planners as well as the other relevant stakeholders in education sometimes do not encourage the study of gender inequality as it helps to create an enabling environment for good teaching and learning activities in secondary schools. Based on this trend, the researcher is basically concerned with the present study as it affects students academic performance in secondary schools. However, this is a development that comes up as a result of persistent poor academic performance in social studies in secondary schools. In the final analysis, considering all these variables surrounding student poor performance in social studies at the junior secondary school level in Kaduna State. This development of student poor academic high rate of student poor academic performance due to gender inequality does not equally improve high rate of student concentration in academic work. Consequent up on this, the research study seeks to examine the influence of gender inequality on students’ academic performance in social study.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study is to examine gender inequality and its influence on students’ academic performance in social studies among students in secondary schools in Chikun Government Area of Kaduna State. However, the specific objectives of the study include the following;

1.     To find out it gender inequality among secondary school students and to predict their academic performance.

2.     To investigate if social behaviour due to gender inequality has any insignificant influence on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Chikun Government Area.

3.     To assess if the school environment has any significant influence on gender inequality and their academic performance.

4.     To find out if peer group and gender inequality has any significant influence on students academic performance among students in secondary schools in Chikun Government Area in Kaduna State.

5.     To investigate whether gender inequality among students in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.

1.4     Research Questions

The following research questions are developed to guide the research study.

i.                   To what extent does gender inequality predicts students academic performance in social studies among secondary school in Chikun Government Area of Kaduna State?

ii.                 Does social behaviour due to gender inequality have any significant influence on the academic performance of students on social studies among secondary school in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state?

iii.              In what ways does school environment and gender inequality has any significant effect, on student academic performance in social studies among students in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state?

iv.              Does peer groups and gender inequality has any significant influences in students academic performances in social studies in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?  

v.                 Does a gender inequality and teaching and learning activity have any significant influence on students’ academic performance in social studies in Chikun Local Government Area in Kaduna state?

1.5     Basic Assumptions

The research study is premised under the following basic assumptions.

                   i.            Gender inequality predicts the academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

                 ii.             Social bahaviour of students due to gender inequality has significant influences on the academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.

              iii.             School environment has significant influence on gender inequality on academic performance of students in secondary school in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

              iv.             Peer group and gender inequality has significant influences on students academic performances among students in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

                 v.            Gender inequality among students in secondary schools has significant influences in teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state.

1.6     Significance of the Study

Stakeholders in education sector will always appreciate high level of student academic performance in secondary schools. However the following will benefit from the research study.

i.                   Stakeholders and school management authority will benefit from this study it will create a good awareness level on the importance of creating effective teaching and learning on student.

ii.                 Social studies students and teachers will equally benefit from this research studies since it will equally allow them to be focused on good teaching and learning activities irrespective of gender differences.

iii.              Parents and students will benefit from this study in the area of mutual understanding on the relevance of social studies in secondary schools.

iv.              The outcome of this research work will go always to provide a good school environment between male and female students.




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