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1.1 Background of the study
Family planning has been a common problem with the developing countries in the world, due to lack of family planning the population of the developing countries using Nigeria as a typical example when unchecked increased geometrically. The lack of family planning which led to an increase in Nigeria population is as a result of lack of women education, poverty etc. It is a common observation to everybody that what we often say is a blessing could turn to be a curse as in the case of the increasing population of a country. The only way this can be prevented is through the use of birth control or family planning and this is one of the major way in which Nigeria population can be reduced. One question that always comes to my mind is that if fertility is not controlled and it grows beyond its carrying capacity, then there will be a huge problem in population control, as we all know over populations a problem to a country especially the developing countries. The above mentioned facts has led the researcher into the topic; family planning as an agent of reduction of the increasing population in Nigeria, a case study of Ovia North East Local Government Area. It is important to know that whatsoever happens in any society always begin from the family. However, another question that can really come to mind is this. What is family planning? Though many authors has defined it in various way. Family planning is defined as a process whereby parents or couples have their children by choice and not by chance by this we mean that couples can control the number of children they want and when they want them. Though more people use family planning than ever before. More than half of the couples in the developing countries use family planning today compared with 10% in the 1960s. This dramatic increase in family planning use has caused fertility to decline much more rapidly in the developing countries and if this is achieved it can lead to the attainment of optimal population which is the best type of population in both developed countries and developing countries. The world’s total population has been expanding at alarming rates since the Industrial Revolution. When comparing the growth of populations worldwide, it is apparent that each world region is characterized by differing population structures. Although several world regions have experienced reductions in growth rates in recent decades, it is evident that certain world regions are still experiencing rapid population growth, which poses a threat to their internal development. These populations may be growing at a rate that will result in severe damage to social, economic and environmental spheres if population growth does not slow. Sub-Saharan Africa, (SSA), is one world region that that is currently experiencing developmental complications due to population pressure. This world region has experienced a multitude of hardships relative to its nation’s political, economic, social, and environmental stability beginning with colonization and through to current exploitative practices today. However, one positive thing that other nations can do to aid in SSA internal development is to help stabilize the region’s population growth. The energy spent when seeking to provide for overpopulated regions is taxing on all human and natural systems; the economic, social and cultural spheres of SSA populations are in jeopardy of being harmed as the synergetic relationship between these elements is altered by overpopulation. Population expansion, throughout history, has had measurable impacts on the social and natural environments of any given population. Coinciding with population growth is the ability, or lack there of for populations to adapt to resulting changes; these adaptive capabilities are seen by the ability to utilize resources in more efficient, and 14 inventive measures as a means to subsist. Modern day humans have the ability to manipulate nature in ways to provide for our growing numbers; however, we also have acquired the ability to manipulate our growth by controlling fertility rates. By manipulating rates of natural population growth, humans have come closer to influencing the world’s population as to reach greater equilibrium within our human and natural systems. The globalization of modernization has had profound effects on populations worldwide. Observing changing demographic structures has made noticeable an important trend: lower fertility rates are observed in concurrence with changes seen in modernized societies. Modernization takes different shapes and forms dependent upon a given region, yet when studying population structures it is crucial to note that a decline in fertility is observed amongst all modern societies. This fertility transition is necessary for SSA regions to experience in order for its population to stabilize. I would like to address the most crucial impacts of population pressure that are preventing further development and movement of SSA regions towards reaching stable population structures. Once these areas are identified, the place of family planning in relation to decreasing fertility rates will be examined. By assessing a history of the effectiveness and availability of family planning programs in the past, I hope to identify strategies by which these programs can be useful to local populations. With a cultural and social landscape as diverse as SSA the implementation of localized, culturally appropriate family planning programs cannot be emphasized enough. A multitude of factors influence the motivation of individuals to utilize family planning, and these individual needs must be met in order for family 15 planning programs to be successful in lowering birth rates in order to stabilize the region’s population. The effect of education of women and men on reproductive outcomes will be explored and an emphasis placed on the importance of both. Further, the future of effective family planning programs lies in the inclusion of males in program outreach and implementation. The cultural structure of SSA families speak to the necessity of educating men and women on the shared-responsibility of reproductive outcomes and decision-making before such a foreign ideology like controlled fertility may be adopted. These changes in future family planning program policy are some of the most important measures that can be taken in order to aid in this region’s development. Lowering fertility rates and stabilizing population structures will relieve current stressors of population pressure that serve as a threat to SSA internal development. Family planning helps save women and children’s live and preserves their health by preventing untimely and unwanted pregnancies reducing women’s exposure to health risk of child birth and abortion and giving women who are often the sole care givers more time to care for their children. As countries has modernized and become more urban and as women have achieved higher levels of education and have begun to marry late. Couples want fewer children. The growing availability of modern family planning method through the use of contraceptive such as pills, injections, intrauterine devices and sterilization etc, has made it possible for women and couples to space the births of their children and it as made it possible to have fewer children and this has help and will continue to help to reduce the over-population rate of Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Over a long period of time the issue of family planning as been neglected because so many believe that children are blessing from God and children are to be given birth by chance and not by choice which is the opposite of family planning and this as an effect on the Nigeria population. Hence this research work is carried out in order to know if the people are still in the shadow of ignorance over the facts of family planning through the data collected and also to enlighten the populace of the importance, harmlessness of proper family planning to the society and to oneself.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this study is;
1. To enlighten the public on the meaning of family planning.
2. To examine the family planning facilities available
3. To examine the benefit of family planning to Nigeria as a country to oneself.
4. To identify the barriers attached to the use of family planning.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be immensely important to all those connected with family planning control most especially the health works. Information gathered from this project will help educate the illiterate couples and also the literate couples, it will also give the general public on the importance of family planning in the society.
The researcher who will want to carry out further research into this project topic. The information available from this project will add to the pool of data or ideas to be used in planning and developing the general public.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. How profound is your knowledge in the issue of family planning?
2. Is the general public still ignorant to the issue of family planning in the modern world?
3. What are the effect or barriers of family planning to the society and to our self?
4. Does family planning has any barriers on women?
5. has there been proper awareness on the use of family planning in Ovia North East Local Government Area?
6. Does the government have a role to play in the issue of family planning?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: family planning does not have any benefit to Nigeria as a country and to individuals
H1: family planning does have benefit to Nigeria as a country and to individuals
H0: government does not have a role to play in the issue of family planning
H2: government does have a role to play in the issue of family planning
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The focus and coverage of the research work is on Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. It examines the significance of family planning as an agent of population reduction in Nigeria. The research selected the following communities for the study;
- Ugbowo, Ekiadolor
- Iguosa and Idowina. All in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
In the cause of the study, there were some factors that limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Finance: Limited Access to the required finances makes it difficult to broaden the scope of the study;
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Family Planning: It can be define as a situation whereby couples decides to have their children by choice and not by chance.
Agent: In this context agent means a force that causes a change.
Contraceptive: A device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy.
Population: Is the total number of people who live in a particular area, city or country.
Control: The power to make decision about how country an area, an organization is run.
Increasing: To make greater in amount or value.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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