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Background of the Study
The survival of any nation depends largely upon the premium attached to the education of its citizens. Education, whether basic or technical is the corner stone of the technological, political, economic development and stability of any nation.
Umar and Ma,aji (2010), state that education is one of the fundamental based on which the prosperity and future of a nation lies. Without education a country or nation cannot achieve its social progress and prosperity nor would its dignity and future be convincible. If any country is to development technologically, socially and economically, it has to invest a lot in education.
Education is the totality of life experience that people acquire and which enables them to cope with and drive satisfaction from living in the world. This is because it enables them to achieve social competence and optimum individual development. It is on this premise that it is believed that the quality of a nation’s education is proportional to the level of its prosperity Owuamamam (2005). From the beginning of time, man has strived to improve his way and quality of life. The Caveman discovered how to make and use tools, developed logical sequence for activities and evolved processes that added to his life, the totality of the use and application of his knowledge, skills tools and materials constitute what we today describe as technology. Technology comes from Greek word, - Technologia; techne-an art, skill or craft and “logia’- the study of something or the branch of knowledge of discipline Emetaron( 2004).
Although, education as a single word encompasses all leaning experiences as experienced by man vocational and technical education is in a place of its own, because it’s unique. Unique in the sense that vocational and technical education may be referred to as education for life and education for earning a living. The policy governing the present and future development of technical and vocational education in Nigeria is embodied in the National Policy on Education (2004) which defined vocational education as “that aspect of education which leads to acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as the basic scientific knowledge.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (F G N 2004) defined technical and vocational education as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education. The study of technologies and related science and acquisition of practical skill, attitude, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various sections of economic and social life.
In a broad sense, vocational and technical education is that part of total experience of an individual to learn successfully to carry on a gainful occupation Enyekit, E.O & Enyenilli (2007). According to Okoro (1993) vocational and technology education provides the skill knowledge and attitudes necessary for effective employment in specific occupations.
Fafunwa (2002) emphasized that the introduction of vocational and technology education is a valuable instruction for national technological development. Fafunwa further stated that the specific objectives of the post primary school level of education are to develop in the student manipulative skill (manual dexterity) invention, respect for dignity of labour and above all healthy attitude toward things technical. It is not gainsaying that technology cannot be brought, borrowed or even transferred because technology is a culture that has to be developed. Omoifo & Awanbor (2002) started that the new National policy on education has all the necessary requirement for taking Nigeria into the future technologically, socially and morally develop nation. If the policy is well co-ordinate and implemented it well lay a solid basic for the nation to launch itself among the great nation. This is because its main focus is self reliant of an individual and a nation, at large.
The existing system of education 6-3-3-4 started with building of workshops and procurement of equipment for secondary school for teaching and learning in technical subject. Vocational and technical education existed before western education. This can be seen as indigenous trade and craft skills practice among Nigerians. Examples weaving, dyeing, blacksmithing, lather work, pottery and beads marking among others. In the event of western education, there were two main reasons why the missionaries established schools and provided education and provided education beyond elementary stage. There were need of the missionaries for teachers and preachers and need of the colonial government for clerks. The early secondary schools were grammar founded after the English school system. No technical or vocational were originally established, missionaries were reluctant to established vocational and technical institutions in Nigeria. Also they preferred the grammar school education; this can be regarded as a means of avoiding manual works which was laborious. The development of vocational and technology education was slow in Nigeria because of the attitudes of the missionaries government and Nigeria toward it Akinsolu (2004).
The objectives of vocational and technical education accorcing to FRN (2004) are to:
i. Provided trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and business particularly at craft, and technical levels.
ii. Provide the technical knowledge and vocational skill necessary for agriculture, commercial and economic development.
iii. Give training and import the necessary skill to individual who shall be self-reliant economically.
Electrical installation and maintenance work as part of technology education plays a vital an important role growth and development of any organization either private or public sector.
Electrical Installation Maintenance Practice Work in one of the trade offered in technical college. It is a vocational that exposes students to skills. According to Asiyai (2012) Electrical Installation Maintenance practice is a programme introduced by way practical exercise, the maintenance of electrical system and circuits, electrical installation, Inspection and test procedure. National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) (2004) Electrical craftsmen are expected to test, diagnose, survive install and completely repair any fault on electrical machine and equipment using the manufacture's manual. In the report of NBTE (2004) the aim of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Practice is to give training and impart the necessary skill leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians and other skill personnel who will be enterprising and self reliant.
Statement of the problem
It is surprising that despite the efforts of government, individuals and non-government agencies in enhancing the educational development in Nigeria, the Gombe State Ministry of Education, report (2014) shown that the academic performance of students in electrical installation and maintenance work in selected technical colleges, Gombe state has declined greatly poor. It was also observed that failure of students in electrical installation and maintenance work has been so high in Government science and technical college Gombe and kumo in the recent years. If this is not checkmated, our Science and Technology related subject’s graduates from the technical college may not be employable and those who may further in their University Education may experience difficulties because of their background. Consequently, our educational system will not attain its objective of producing qualified and competent product in electrical installation and maintenance work trade; industries will lack technicians who would help in the maintenance and production process in our local industry.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study was to identify factors responsible for failure of the students’ in electrical installation and maintenance work Examination in selected technical colleges, Gombe State. Specifically, the study tends to:-
• Determine students’ factors responsible for failure in electrical installation and maintenance work in technical colleges.
• Determine teacher factors responsible for the failure of students in electrical installation and maintenance work in technical colleges.
• Determine the availability of resources for teaching electrical installation and maintenance work in Government science and technical colleges Gombe and kumo.
• The problems of students encounter with the teaching of electrical installation and maintenance work
Significant of the study
This research is an attempt to identify the basic factors that are responsible for student’s failure in electrical installation and maintenance work in Gombe State.
The researcher believes that, the result of the findings will be valuable to students, technical teachers, curriculum planners as well as the community and society at large. And also, solution and recommendations from the findings of this research could be used for the enhancement of effective teaching electrical installation and maintenance work. The Gombe state Government benefit because it would help immensely in tackling the problems of unemployment which resulted to “Kalare Gang” in the state. It would also, serves as sources of revenue to the state government when technicians pay their taxes.
· What are the student’s related factors responsible for student failure in electrical installation and maintenance work?
• What are the teacher’s related factors responsible for student’s failure in NABTEB in Government Technical Colleges Gombe and Kumo in Gombe state?
• What are the resources available for teaching electrical installation and maintenance work in Government technical colleges Gombe and kumo in Gombe state?
• What are the problems encountered by students in learning electrical installation and maintenance work?
Scope of the study
The scope of the study will cover some selected Technical Colleges in Gombe State. Which are;-
Government Science and Technical College (GSTC) Gombe, Government Science and Technical College (GSTC) Akko.
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