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Background of the study
There is an increasing concern towards the academic performance of students recent years. One reason for this has been the general cry-out about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. Sanusi (1993) identified that, inadequate equipment and tools supplied by the Federal Government are air embodiment of the problems responsible for student’s poor performance. He further posits that poor installation and obsolete equipment could also affect performance in exams. Fagbemi (1999) attributed this phenomenon to many reasons among which could be poor policies formulated by the government, teachers’ inadequacies, and ineffectiveness, unwillingness of the student to learn and poor funding.
Technical Drawing is a subject offered in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination as contained in the National Policy on Education (2004).
Technical Drawing has been defined by many authors based on some key concepts. Awojobi (1976), defines Technical Drawing as a shorthand language which describes by means of drawing and as
precisely as possible, whatever has been manufactured in is intended for manufacture". Parkinson (1978) defined Technical Drawing as a graphic language. It is the means of communication used by draughts men, designers, engineers, e.t.c. to convey their ideas to the production personnel.
Tafida (1997) posits that Technical Drawing is the backbone of engineering courses. However from the above definitions, it is clear that the importance of Technical Drawing in engineering and technology cannot be over emphasized. This therefore advocates for an improved performance in Technical Drawing. Olaitan (1999), defined the term performance as an indication of the impact of group activities done on the achievement of intended learning outcome. The oxford advanced learners dictionary (2002), defines performance as "how well or badly for do something". However, in relation to the programme or curriculum, it is the observed impact of the programme on achieving its set objectives and goals.
Okereke (1999) posit that, the quality of an education is properly defined by the Performance of its students and graduates. This in practice is measured by input and output. Therefore, achieving intended learning outcomes can some times be blamed on both teachers and students; this can be substantiated by Tafida (1997), who opined that effective teaching and learning of Technical Drawing generally depends on the attitude exhibited by both teachers and the students taught.
Mean while, records available indicates student's poor performance on Technical Drawing as approved in Academic Board Meetings of Federal Colleges of Education (Technical) Bichi and Gusati In Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, records showed that there is 62.50% of poor performance in Technical Drawing and 37.50% of good performance rate on 2004/2005 academic session. In 2005/06 academic session, there is 60.75% of poor performance on Technical/Engineering Drawing and 39.25% of quality performance rate. Moreover, there is higher rate of poor performance in Technical Drawing in 2006/2007 academic session in Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi where there is about 60 o of poor performance and 40% of good performance rate. In the same vein, records available in Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau indicates poor performance on Technical Drawing, where it shows that there is 83.43% of poor performance rate and 16.67% of quality performance rate in 2005/2006 academic session, and 72% of poor performance rate and 28% of good performance rate in 2006/2007 academic session.
Statement of problem
Students performance in Technical Drawing is poor, Njeribiako (1981), blamed it on ineffectiveness of the teacher, inadequate drawing equipment and facilities as the major factors affecting students performance in the subject. Fagbemi (1999) blamed poor performance on poor funding and lack of students interest. However, information has not been elicited on environmental factor on students performance and strategies to be adopted to improve students performance in Technical Drawing. These factors if left untouched will remain a problem in achieving quality performance in Technical Drawing. Therefore, the issue which arises for this study is "what are the factors affecting students performance in Technical Drawing in Federal Colleges of Education (Technical) in North-Western states of Nigeria?
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study was to ascertain factors affecting students' performance in Technical Drawing, specifically the study seeks to:-
1. Identify the students related factors that affects their performance the Technical Drawing.
2. Find out teacher related factors affecting students performance in Technical Drawing.
3. Identify the environmental related factors affecting students performance in Technical Drawing.
4. Find out strategies to be adopted for improving students performance in Technical Drawing.
This study was guided by the following research questions based on the problems and purpose of the study.
1. What are the students related factors affecting their performance in Technical Drawing?
2. What are the teacher related factors affecting students performance in Technical Drawing?
3. What are the environmental related factors affecting students performance in Technical Drawing?
4. What are the strategies to be adopted to improve students' performance in Technical Drawing?
Significance of the study
The findings of this study will benefit the following set of people; the society, the school, the teachers and students.
The society will benefits as it exposes those factors affecting students’ performance in Technical Drawing. These factors are students, teachers, environmental and infrastructure related factors affecting students’ performance.
The school will also benefit from the findings of this study as it reveals areas of strength and weaknesses as related to teachers, students and infrastructure, and the need to address those factors. Factors such as infrastructural and teacher related factors and need to address the problems positively.
The teachers of Technical Drawing will find the results of this study useful as it reveals their strength and weakness in the teaching learning situation which may help them to improve the teaching method.
The students of technical education will also benefit from the findings of this study, as it reveals their areas of weakness in learning technical drawing.
Delimitation of the study
This research was aimed at pointing out the main factors affecting the performance of students in Technical Drawing in federal colleges of education (technical) located in the North-western Nigeria, that is federal college of education (technical), Bichi, of Kano State and Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau of Zamfara State.
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