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1.1. Background to the study
The use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and training has been a priority in most European countries during the last decade, but progress has been uneven (Pelgrum, 2004). In most developed countries such as UK, schools have embedded the use of ICT in teaching and learning into the curriculum and demonstrate high level of effective and appropriate use to support teaching and learning Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, (OECD, 2004).
Furthermore, (UNESCO, 2005) reiterates that those countries have integrated ICT into their education system because of its profound implications such as enabling teachers and pupils to construct rich multi-sensory, interactive environments with almost unlimited teaching and learning potential. According to (Unwin, 2004), computers and internet can be used to increase teachers’ basic skills and subject mastery, to provide resources that can later be used in classroom, and to help teachers build familiarity with specific instructional approaches. (Privateer, 1999) also notes that ICT is supposed to add value to education and to support more effective pedagogy to provide knowledge for learners and by enhancing communication that promotes learning. In addition, as ICT becomes more pervasive, computer based equipment is integrated into every aspect of schools operation, having thus an influence on the student’s performance. A number of researchers including (Iding et al, 2000) among others assert that the use of ICT in teaching and learning can help learners become more knowledgeable. In addition to efforts to employ ICT to improve learning, the emergence of knowledge economy has also brought a much greater emphasis on education (Wong, 2003).
The rapid growth of the global economy and the information-based society has pressurized education systems round the world to use ICTs to teach the knowledge and skills they need in the 21st Century (World Bank, 2004). The growth of the ICT sector has challenged teachers to prepare for effective use of the new teaching and learning tools in their teaching profession. (UNESCO, 2002) (Laferreire, Breuleux and Bracewell, 1999) argue that there are significant benefits of using ICT as part of teaching and learning process as long as teachers recognize the relationship between the use of ICT and overall curriculum. ( Haddad and Draxler ,2005) point out that different ICTs do make some valuable contributions to various parts of educational development and effective learning through expanding access, promoting efficiency, improving the quality of learning, enhancing quality teaching and improving management systems.
On the contrary, many developing countries in Africa are living in a world of technological deficiency, that is, lack of access to knowledge that is learnt via the internet (OECD, 2006). Additionally, if Africa aims to better prepare its citizens for the challenges of the 21st century, it must also foster thorough integration of ICT in order to tap new, attractive, promising and diversified potentials. In cognizance of the critical opportunities accorded by ICT in service delivery as well as teaching and learning, the governments of many Africans countries have over the years invested heavily in the requisite ICT infrastructure.
New partnership for African’s Development, (NEPAD, 2003). Grabe and Grabe, (2007) emphasizes that technologies can play an important role in enabling pupils gain skills and knowledge in the teaching and learning process. In Nigeria, this sessional paper NO1 of 2005 emphasizes that ICT skills play a key role in Promoting the economic development of a country MOEST (2005). As a result, the government recognized that an ICT literate workforce is the foundation on which Nigeria can acquire the status of knowledge and economy.
The Government as a result has made education the avenue for equipping the nation with ICT skills in order to create a vibrant and sustainable economic growth. The National ICT policy was launched in 2006 in response to issue raised in seasonal paper NO1 of 2005 according to MOE, (2006). It was also meant to assure the nation achieve part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The policy framework of Ministry of Education indicates that there are a number of challenges concerning access to and use of ICT in Nigeria, including high level of poverty, limited rural electrification and power disruption. Most primary schools have some computer equipment. However, this could consist of a few computers in the schools operations.
Very few primary schools have sufficient ICT tools for teachers and pupils. Even the schools, which have computers, the pupils-computers ratio is 150:1 (Farell, 2007).
1.2. Statement of the problem
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigerian education is lagging behind expectation and desire. This was revealed by the fact while most primary schools have some computer equipment; only a fraction was equipped with basic ICT infrastructure necessary for teaching and learning. Essentially, ICT in education is used to promote information literacy that is the ability to access use, evaluate information from different sources so as to enhance teaching and learning, solve problems and generate new knowledge. Furthermore, United Nations and the World Bank affirms that ICT can increase access to education network for pupils, teachers and broaden availability of quality education material for emerging global economies.
According to (MOEST, 2003) if primary schools in Nigeria provide access to ICTs, there would be improvement in quality education that would enable improve the productivity and competiveness of Nigeria’s human resource pool by developing a highly skilled human resource base to respond to social and economic challenges.
However, was noted that Rachuonyo South district in Homabay County like many other districts in the county was still limited to computer use in primary schools. Statistics from the DEOs office Rachuonyo South indicated that only eight Primary schools had embedded the integration of ICT out of eighty-five Primary schools in the district. This signified that over 90% of the schools had not embraced ICT in their curriculum. This described the use of ICT in the district as almost negligible. This meant that learning outcomes of the pupils in primary in the district might be dismal due to the absence of ICT in most of the primary schools in the district.
This short fall in learning outcomes created a “gap” because it is at primary schooling where returns to student education are highest and it is particularly important to acquire skills and competencies needed to become ideally empowered to respond to social change in societies for the better. But without ICT in education, especially pupils in Rachuonyo South might lack the social empowerment that can make them compete with others favorably. Thus, failure to re-shape education practices to embrace ICT in schools in the district might be the main bottleneck preventing the pupils from acquiring equitable access of educational opportunities for quality education. Therefore, the researcher intended to find out the use of computers in teaching and learning process and its subsequent effects in Rachuonyo South District schools.
1.3. Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to establish effect of the availability and integration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning in primary schools in Ibeju, Lagos State.
1.4. Objectives of the study
The objectives of this study were as follows:
i) To examine availability of ICT tools for use in enhancing teaching and learning.
ii) To establish the extent to which teachers were endowed with skills on ICT use in enhancing teaching and learning.
iii) To investigate the principals’ and teachers’ attitude towards the use of computers in teaching and learning.
iv) To establish the pupils’ attitudes towards the use of computers in teaching and learning.
1.5. Research questions
Based on the objectives of the study, the following were the research questions for examination:
i) To what extent had primary schools in Ibeju, Lagos State established ICT tools for use in enhancing teaching and learning?
ii) To what extent were teachers endowed with skills on ICT use in enhancing teaching and learning?
iii) What were the principals and teachers’ attitudes towards the use of computers in teaching and learning?
iv) Which were the factors that encouraged the use of ICTs in enhancing teaching and learning processes?
1.6. Significance of the study
ICTs have the potential to play a powerful role in enhancing teaching and learning in schools and preparing pupils to acquire skills, knowledge and competencies to enable them compete in the emerging global ‘knowledge’ economy. Data and information obtained in this study would hopefully be used to provide various education stakeholders with information that ICT integration in schools held a great promise in developing economies like Nigeria. The findings could also help the Ministry of Education (MOE) in formulation of policies and strategies that can be used to enhance the academic standards in our schools. The study will also make possible recommendation towards increasing the use of ICTs in enhancing teaching and learning processes.
1.7. Limitations of the study
The use of ICT in teaching and learning is considered to be very crucial and therefore little time for the respondents to respond to the questionnaire would make the findings absolute. The principals, teachers and pupils may have given responses that seemed not to portray the actual phenomena in the study because most of the schools were in their early phase of ICT integration into teaching and learning characterized by patchy and coordinated provision and use. Further, the schools were far apart and therefore, the long distance associated with poor road network within the district would negatively affect the study. It was also not possible to relate improvement in teaching and learning on only the use of ICT because many unobservable factors might also influence better outcomes of teaching and learning in schools.
1.8. Delimitations of significant terms
The study was conducted in primary schools that use computer assisted approach to learning. The scope of the study was delimited to schools that had had ICT integration in their process of learning for the last three years since the introduction of ICT in the school. The research was conducted in schools that had had at least 10 computers and using the computers for instructional purposes.
1.9. Basic Assumptions of the study
The study was based on the following assumptions:
i) The information given by the respondents were true and free from bias.
ii) That there could be a positive impact if ICT is used appropriately in teaching and learning.
iii) That the information given by the respondents were treated as confidential.
1.10. Organization of the study
The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one presents a general introduction and includes the background to the study, the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance, limitations, delimitations, basic assumptions of the study, definition of significant terms and the organization of the study. Chapter two covers literature reviews on us of ICT in teaching and learning in primary schools, the theoretical background in use of ICT in teaching and learning and the conceptual framework of ICT use in primary schools. Chapter three describes the research methodology to be used. This included the research design, target population, sample and sampling procedure and data analysis techniques. Chapter four focused on data analysis, interpretation and discussion of findings. Chapter five contains the summary, research findings, discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
1.11. Definition of terms
The following terminologies have been used throughout this study:
Computer: refers to Electronic machine operated under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data (input) manipulate data according to specific rules (process) produce results (out-put) and store the results for future use.
Computer literacy :- refers to people being able to use computer technology to facilitate the completion of necessary tasks and the solution of problems.
Curriculum: refers to a set of courses, and their content offered at school or university.
E-learning: refers to the purposeful use of electronic systems or computer in support of learning process, Allen 2003.
Hardware: refers to tangible components of computers including processors, input, output communication and memory.
ICT Integration: refers to the process of using any ICT (Information resources on the web, multi-media programmes in CD-ROMs, learning objects or other tools) to enhance student teaching, William, 2003.
Impact: refers to the overall achievement of an intervention on the educational system and can be described by a variety qualitative of indicators such as improvements in national test results or improved learning in schools’ depending on the policy target. It is the end-point of an intervention involving input, process, output and outcome.
Informal learning: It refers to the life-long process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experiences and the educative influences and resources in him or her environment, from the library and the ICTs, Colley, H. Hodkinson, P & Malcom J. 2002.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs): refers to networks that provide new opportunities for teaching, learning and training through delivery of digital contents, Prytherch 2000: 357. For the purpose of this study and in the context of curriculum, ICTs will refer to the range of tools and techniques relating to computer-based hardware and software, to information sources as the internet, audio and video tapes, CD-ROMs and DVDs.
Integration: refers to a sense of completeness or wholeness, Earle, 2002; by which essential elements of a system are seamlessly combined together to make a whole.
Pedagogy: refers to what the teachers do when they interact with children to support their learning. (Most educators would consider that pedagogy encompasses the beliefs and actions of teachers including their teaching strategies, the organization of learning experiences and the learning environment g
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