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BACKGROUND OF STUDY`
A single parent is a parent not living with a spouse or a partner. The single parent has most of the day to day responsibilities in raising the child or children.
Single parenthood is the practice of raising children or building family without a spouse or partner. As a choice of building a family, single parenthood (single parenting) is now acceptable in our society. In western society in general the child will end up with the primary caregiver usually the mother or the secondary caregiver usually the father when there is a separation. Some sociologist perceives the prevalence of single parenting as an alternative family form, rather than as a problem in the society. Regardless of how it is perceived, the increase of families raised by one parent influences the social economical and political context of family life.
In Nigeria, the existence of single parent was formerly unknown and where they existed they were ignored as exceptional cases. However, nowadays they are fast growing family pattern both inside and outside Nigeria. Although there is no available statistic of single parent in Nigeria, practical experience and newspaper report shows that there is an increase of single parent in Nigeria.
Historically death of a partner was a major cause of single parenting, other causes include divorce of a couple with children parent that never married, early pregnancy e. t .c. however, children with single parent are three times more likely to dropout of school than children from two parent families (similes and lee, zool). The demographic of single parenting show a general increase worldwide in children living in single parent homes. A child from home where the father and mother are present will be taken care of and socialize in best way possible, this is due to the fact that the process of socialization depend on both parents playing complimentary role in the upbringing of the child such a child is likely to achieve self actualization later in life, unlike children from single parent home who are likely to suffer deprivation and denial of some right and opportunities.
Over the past 20 years single parent families have become even more common than the nuclear family. Life in a single parent household through common can be quite stressful for the adult and for the children. Member of a single parent family can function like the two parent family and may not feel comfortable when it cannot. The single parent may feel overwhelmed by the responsibilities of caring for the children; maintain a job and keeping up with the bills.
Amato (2003) suggested that single parent is problematic for children socialization because many with one parent receive less economic and emotional support, less practical assistance less information, guidance and supervision, less role modeling than children in two parent families those. Among children in single parent families those from mothers absent household earn lower grades than children from fathers absent homes and matter which are absent children from single parent families generally find it difficult to connect with school activities both academically and morally (Murkey et al 2004).
The family is the first socializing agent; the child come in contact with it has a great influence on the child’s physical mental and moral development. The father is to provide the necessary tools for educational while the mother is supposed to supplement the father’s effort in this regard when the father is absent and the mother is not privilege enough to cater for all the basic needs as well as supervised the child educationally and morally will be backward. The teacher at school commonly describe children from as more hostile, aggressive, anxious, fearful, hyperactive and distractible than children from two parent families.
One is therefore motivated to ask the question “what is the effect of single parenthood on the academic performance of pupils”?
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally speaking, two good heads are better than one. The role parents play in the upbringing of a child is very important and so many male and female children in school are portraying habits which seem not to be in accordance with the school rules and regulation e.g. fighting, stealing, female pupils keeping male companies, keeping bad companies. And this has negative effect on the academic performance of the pupils.
This prompted the researcher to investigate effect of single parenthood on the academic performance of pupils in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State.
Research generally is to understand or find answers to problem that the researcher may be interested in. in the quest for solution the researcher’s talk is to ask pertinent question whose aim is to address whatever could be bothering the researcher.
For the purpose of the present study, the following questions were asked.
1. Does single parenthood have any effect on the academic performance of pupils in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State?
2. Do children from single parenthood enjoy the support of both parents financially in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State?
3. Are children from single parenthood properly guided in terms of future career in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State?
4. Does the manner of treatment given to children from single parent/broken homes affect their academic performance?
5. Does the attitude of teachers towards children from single parent home affect the academic performance of the children?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This is designed to find out the effect of single parenthood on academic performance of pupils and also to offer solution to the effect this might have in the pupils generally.
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This research work will give proper understanding about the effect of single parenthood on children academic performance of pupils in Egor Local Government Area, and prevent them from developing attitude that may affect the child or children academically.
It will also enable the government to understand and be able to face the danger and problem of single parenthood and find ways of curbing this danger that is eating deep into the fabric of our society.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is expected to cover all the primary school in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State to find out the effect of single parenthood on the academic performance of pupils in the primary school. But considering the fact that there are many primary schools in the local government, the researcher limited it to some selected primary school in the local government.
1. Ugbowo Primary School, Ugbowo.
2. Edaiken Primary School.
3. Eweka Primary School, Useh.
4. Iyesigie Primary School, Uselu.
DEFINITION OF SOME RELATED TERMS
Single Parent: This usually refers to a parent who has most of the day to day responsibilities in the raising of the child or children.
Academic: A place of training.
Pupils: These are boys and girls who learn in primary school.
Performance: This is the result of an achievement of an individual in his/her place of study.
Primary Caregiver: This is a parent that the child or child spend most of their time with.
Family: This is a group consisting of one or two parent and their children.
Divorce: This is the legal ending of a marriage.
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