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Background of the Study

Basic Science and Technology is one of the core subjects in the primary education curriculmu as enshrined in the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). McGraw-Hills (2005) has it that science is the knowledge about the structure and behaviour of natural and physical world, based on facts that one can prove, for example by experiments. Science and technology can be said to be a system of organising the knowledge about particular subject, especially one concerned with aspects of human behaviour and society.

The term science can be used to refer to a product (body of knowledge), a process (a way of acquiring new knowledge through observation, questioning and experimentation), and an enterprise (an institutioanl pursuit of knowledge of the natural world/environment (Egbuna, 2010). The current development of science and technology has greatly affected the lives of every human being that no one can fane ignorance of their significance

Basic Science and Technology as defined by Asun, Bajah, Ndu, Oguntonade and Youdeowei (2010) is the foundation knowledge given to primary school pupils to help them learn and understand science and acquire basic scientific training to become creative and capable of innovative thinking. It is an activity-oriented course which follows strick thematic approach whose aim is to make learning science effective through a series of activities and exercises, as well as a modern approach of discovery methods. The overall objectives of Basic Science and Technology curriculum under the Universal Basic Education Programme are to:

i) develop interest in science and technology;

ii) acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology;

iii) apply their scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet

societal need;

iv) take advantage of the numerous career opportunities offered by science and

technology; and

v) become further prepared for further studies in science and technology.

The interaction of about 150 million Nigerians with their environment creates indelible marks on the landscape. The Vision 2010 Committee of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1997) and Omoogun (2004), catalogued Nigeria’s environmental problems to include soil erosion (sheet, gully, coastal), flooding (coastal, river, urban), over population in cities and urban centres, drought and desertification in the northern parts and deforestation in the southern parts of Nigeria, municipal solid waste and loss of biodiversity,climate change and global warming, urbanization, diseases, all types of pollution and poor sanitation as problems confronting Nigeria and other developing countries. Pollution is the introduction of substances that contaminate the environment and are dangerous to the health of human beings and other living organisms (Onoh, 2007). Corvalan (2005) reported that the world’s biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate requiring important efforts and new decisions on conservation.

According to the McGraw-Hills (2005: 828), the term environment is "the sum of all external factors, both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) to which an organism is exposed to." Here, the biotic factors include influences by members of the same and other species on the development and survival of the individual. It is important to note that for each environmental factor, an organism has a tolerance, in which it is able to survive. For this reason, different individuals or species have different tolerance ranges for particular environmental factors. This variation represents the adaptation of the individual to its environment. In general, the environment provides all support systems, in the air, on water and on land, as well as the materials for fulfilling all developmental aspirations. These impacts on the environment occur as the people attempt to satisfy their seemingly endless desires for food, shelter, recreation, infrastructural facilities and to generally subdue the physical environment in order to achieve economic growth. The quest is based on their mentality supported by two assumptions. Firstly, the earth has an unlimited supply of resources for human use for full exploitation to advance human civilization. People employ advanced and sophisticated technology for the intensification of the exploitation of resources within the environment and to subdue the earth. According to Emeh (1997), there is a gradual but painful realization of the falsehood of this assumption evidenced from the myriads of environmental problems. The second assumption is that humans see themselves as separate from the environment, rather than being a part of it. This anthropocentric view of humans has led to a seeming biological terrorism, an attempt to overcoming nature to fulfill their needs with little regard for the consequences (Asoegwu, 2009).

Although, these wants and desires contribute to the development of the country, which everybody clamours after, the unwise use of the land and its resources produce negative impacts on the environment, thereby leaving the biophysical environment degraded, sometimes permanently. All these negative impacts amount to unsustainable development (Omofonwan and Osa-Ado, 2008), since development is 4 sustainable if it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission, 1987). Concerted efforts are being made by national and international communities to save the environment, yet the rate of degradation is moving at an alarming rate. For instance, the United Nations (UN) Earth Summit in 1992, the 1994 UN Convention to Combat Desertification, the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, and the 2003 UN Decade for Sustainable Development are all efforts to save the environment. The UN Millenuium Development Goal 7 seeks to ensure environmental sustainability in member countries. Sustainability means improving the quality of human life, while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems (Urbanito, 1994). UNESCO Tblisi Declaration (1978: 3) defined environmental education as “the learning process that increases people's knowledge and awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations, and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible actions”. Environmental education helps to create awareness, and will be particularly useful in teaching pupils in the primary school, who are future generations and tomorrow’s leaders, to correct the existing anomaly in the environment and mobilize action by the general public. For this study, EE is the learning process that teaches children the skills, attitudes, and expertise of environmental cleanliness, wise use of natural resources and active participation in environmental improvement and protection.

Statement of the Problem

A  journey  through  the  streets  of  Enugu  South  Local Government  Area  (LGA) of Enugu State, Nigeria reveals ugly  litters of refuse. Heaps  of refuse abound around schools,   markets,   hospitals   and   residential   houses,   spoiling   the   beauty   of   the environment  and  incurring  environmental  health  hazards  through  pollution.  There  is public   outcry   against   mountainous   heaps   of   solid   wastes   in   various   parts   of neighbourhoods. The  situation  calls  for  aggressive  awareness  creation  on  the  delicate  nature  of the natural environment and the need to maintain clean and healthy environment to the point  of  achieving  emotional,  social  and  health  stability.  Sanitation  initiative  to address  the  public  outcry  against  mountainous  heaps  of  solid  wastes  may  require improved teaching of EE to primary and secondary school who will be the future users and leaders of tomorrow. This improved teaching could adopt the use of cartoons, as against the conventional teaching method. Such teaching and learning of EE is aimed at the transfer of in-depth knowledge and the creation of sufficient awareness to help young  people  understand  the  value  of  natural  resources  and  the  ecological  processes that maintain or destroy them. Other topics or subject matter of EE included in Basic Science and Technology are: Pollution:  Meaning  of  pollution,  types  of  pollution,  harmful  effect  of  types  of pollution, control of air, water and land pollution; waste and waste disposal, meaning of  waste,  types  of  waste,  solid  and  liquid  waste,  disposal  of  solid  waste  or  (refuse), disposal  of  liquid  waste  or  (sewage),  dangers  of  improper  waste  disposal,  recycling; environmental  quality,  qualities  of  a  healthy  environment,  qualities  of  an  unhealthy environment,  advantages  of  a  healthy  environment;  disadvantages  of  an  unhealthy environment/disadvantages  of  degrading  the  environment;  ways  of  maintaining  a healthy and beautiful home/school environment

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this research are

1.  To determine whether cartoons as a television programme affects children learning of environmental education.

2.  To find out whether children do actually understand the Environmental education from cartoon

3. To determine whether children should be encouraged or discouraged from watching cartoons.

4.  To make reasonable recommendations on the children and cartoon selection.

1.4  Research Question

For the purpose of this study

The following research questions are formulated

1.  Does cartoons affect children learning of environmental education?

2.  Do children actually understand the environmental education from cartoons?

3.  Should we encourage or discourage or children form watching cartoons.

4.  Should we make reasonable recommendations on the children and cartoon selection.

1.5  Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis were formulated to;

Hypothesis One

   H0: Children do not learn environmental education from the cartoons

they watch

Hi: Children learn environmental education from the cartoons they


Hypothesis Two

H0: Children should not be encourage to watch cartoons

H2: Children should be encouraged from watching some


Significance of the study

This  study  will  help  the  child  in  the  acquisition  of  EE  skills  and  culture  and increase conciousness of environmental cleanliness.Environmental  education  ensures  that  the  children  and  generations  yet  unborn will  live  in  a  clean  and  healthy  environment  by  sanitation  culture.  Theoretically,  the study will be of benefit to researchers on early childhood education, as it will provide insight  into  and  stress  that  cartoons  attract  and  stimulate  even  the  reluctant  pupils  to discuss their ideas, thereby enabling teachers to have access to those ideas. Practically, school children will benefit from the results, as they get involved in managing  and  maintaining  a  healthy  and  clean  environment.    They  will  also  benefit from   the   study,   which   will   improve   their   performance   in   Basic   Science &n

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