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Background of the Study
Audio-visual material is crucial to teaching and learning processes. A dedicated classroom teacher feels satisfied when he realizes the objectives he has set out to achieve for every lesson. In order to achieve this, a trained teacher employs a number of methods, design and actions, one of which includes the use of Audio-visual material. Audio-visual materials are referred to as the resources which both the teachers and students use for the purpose of effective teaching and learning. Okwo (1996) defined Audio-visual materials as those materials that teachers can use in teaching to facilitate the learning of a particular subject or lesson. The list of Audio-visual materials are inexhaustible and their limit is the teacher's level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination. Rominszowski (1996) listed Audio-visual material to include newspaper, magazines, pictures, textbooks, chalkboard, laboratory equipment, posters, bulletins, journal, radio, television, audiocassettes, tapes, film scripts and slides. Others are overhead and opaque projector, real objects and computer. Okebukola (2003) described Audio-visual materials as information multipliers because they are capable of providing learners with opportunities to learn beyond teachers capabilities when utilized for instruction.
Utilization of Audio-visual material is the act of using and applying the available Audio-visual material in the actual teaching/learning process. Where resources are supplied for instructional use, teachers are expected to utilize them to support a
smooth and meaningful flow of instruction and promote
understanding of the content being taught. To facilitate the teaching and learning of Home Economics in Basic 7-9 schools, the skillful teacher can select those Audio-visual materials that are relevant to the Home Economics curriculum. This could be implemented from the numerous Audio-visual materials that abound in the market or that are available in the school. When Audio-visual materials are not utilized, effective teaching and permanent learning are difficult to take place because students cannot actively participate in a way that challenge them to think creatively. Despite the intention of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme, adequate provision and utilization of Audio-visual material for effective teaching and learning of Home Economics has not been attained.
The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme of Nigeria is designed among other things, to facilitate the standard of literacy, and improve societal development. The UBE is a nine-year programme that covers six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary schools. The three years of junior secondary school is known as basic 7-9 (Upper Basic). Home
Economics is one of the vocational subjects taught under the Universal Basic Education and it is designed to promote health in the home and society. Lemchi (2001) described Home Economics as the study of the relationship of people and aspect of their environment such as clothing, housing and finance. Home Economics is a discipline with a broad scope that covers virtually all aspects of an individual's daily living (Anyakoha, 2002). Okpala (2005) described Home Economics as a skill-oriented, decision-making subject that equips learners with skill and knowledge which will help them to be self-employed and at the same time contribute effectively to the socio-economic
development of the family and society.
Home Economics is taught at the upper basic Secondary
School Level (Basic 7- 9) under the Universal Basic Education Programme, as an integrated subject, which comprises Food and
Nutrition, Clothing and Textile and Home Management. Olaitan (1992) noted that the essence of Home Economics education is to enable pupils to explore a vast array of occupations in the field before making a career choice. According to the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2008), the aim of Basic 7-9 Home Economics curricular is to teach the learners how to strategically plan and use available resources in their environment to improve their homes, families and society. The new Basic 7-9 curriculum differs from the previous JSS Home Economics curriculum in that contemporary socitial issues have been integrated, more practical lessons are introduced, the lessons are organised in modules and each module specifies a variety of Audio-visual materials including instructional technologies for teaching. Home Economics is an activity-based and practical oriented subject, and is better taught using a variety of Audio-visual material.
Since these Audio-visual materials are said to be numerous and varied for a subject, the government may not have enough resources to effectively provide all that is required. This is because most factory-finished materials are very expensive due to various factors and inputs in the production process and sometimes the length of time taken to bring out the finished materials. This situation now challenges a practicing teacher to explore his environment and discover materials which can be used in place of the factory finished or imported ones. The teacher's effort to find alternative for the supply of locally made material elicits the innate act of improvisation.
Given the inadequate provision of Audio-visual material for teaching Home Economics, improvisation by teachers in urban and rural basic schools becomes very necessary if students must be properly taught. Improvisation is the act of preparation of the replicas of real substances using costless or cheap locally available materials. Improvisation according to Mogbo (1994) refers to the invention, construction, collection, creation, modification, production and substitution of material for teaching in the absence of professionally made ones. Improvisation involves the act of making suitable substitute for the real thing. It also involves designing and or constructing an equipment or tool by a teacher or with the help of some carpenters, blacksmith, and trade centres. Alterhaug, (2004) noted that when teachers improvise Audio-visual materials, they generate new processes in which learning insight and knowledge acquisition beyond basic level of learning can be achieved thus providing a platform for further development in a variety of contexts. In other words, the activity of the teacher which aimed at improving the sensory experience of the ideal is regarded as improvisation. The teachers are to show positive attitude towards the improvisation of Audio-visual materials in the absence of professionally made ones. They are to be aware that the era of mere rhetoric has gone when textbooks and chalkboard were the only way out. Okpala (2005), stated that "improvisation is teacher's center activity and it is therefore, the urban/rural teachers who through their resourcefulness improvise and utilize a variety of Audio-visual materials for effective teaching and learning. Home Economics teachers in urban areas are those that teach in schools located within urban areas characterized by many amenities like big markets, television, networks, pipe-borne water, road networks, hospitals, companies, and banks. Those in rural areas teach in school located within the area where many amenities are lacking. When learners are taught using Audio-visual materials, they learn faster and retain facts better (Alterhaug, 2004).
It is against this background that this study is embarked upon to determine the extent of improvisation and utilization of Audio-visual materials for Home Economics instruction in urban and rural upper Basic 7-9 Schools in Akwa State.
Statement of the Problem
Effective transfer of practical skills by the teachers to the students in Home Economics require good teaching methods as well as Audio-visual materials. This implies that technological changes have always necessitated the need for continuous provision of Audio-visual material. Despite all the emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills and basic knowledge by the students for various activities in Home Economics it still requires the good manipulation of skill oriented instructional facilities. Yet, the Audio-visual materials are unavailable, insufficient and inadequate (Ogwo, 1996). This may have been responsible for the Basic 7-9 school Home Economics teachers' adoption of theoretical approach in teaching Home Economics in most urban and rural secondary schools in Akwa State. This aspect of teaching/learning seem not to appeal to the students sensory organs of learning as a result of unfavourable situation.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to investigate the improvisation and utilization of Audio-visual materials for teaching
Home Economics by basic 7-9 teachers in urban/rural schools in
Akwa State. Specifically, the study would:
1. identify the various Audio-visual materials available for teaching Basic 7-9 Home Economics.
2. determine the utilization of the available Audio-visual materials by the Basic 7-9 teachers of Home Economics.
3. identify the various Audio-visual materials improvised for teaching of basic 7-9 Home Economics students.
4. ascertain the various ways Audio-visual materials are being improvised for teaching Basic 7-9 Home Economics students.
5. determine the problems encountered by basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers in improvising Audio-visual materials for teaching.
6. identify strategies for enhancing improvisation of Audio-visual materials by Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because the findings would be of benefit to the Home Economics teachers, the students, Akwa State Universal Basic Education Board (ASUBEB) and the society at large.
The results of this study would immensely motivate Home Economics teachers' curiosity towards improvisation and utilization of Audio-visual materials for teaching/learning. The findings of this study could enable teachers to utilize less expensive materials which the students can easily identify in their locality to make their teaching lively. When teachers improvise for teaching, teaching will be very fascinating, less boring and learning would be interesting .
The findings of this study would be beneficial to the students. This is because when teachers improvise and utilize Audio-visual materials in teaching Home Economics, the students' interest and understanding in learning the subject could be enhanced.
The findings of the study would provide statistical data for Akwa State Ministry of Education and Akwa State Universal Basic Education Board (ASUBEB) towards solving the problems encountered by Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers in
improvisation of Audio-visual materials. Such findings will as well serve as data base for Akwa State Ministry of Education and State Education Commission in helping to source locally available materials for improvisation.
Finally, the society would equally benefit from this study if the Home Economics teachers improvise and utilize Audio-visual materials, Home Economics teaching will be lively. If the findings of this study are as well published in journals and other news media they could contribute meaningfully to socio-cultural advancement of the society.
Scope of the Study
This study was limited to available Audio-visual material for teaching Home Economics in Upper Basic 7 – 9, their utilization and how Audio-visual materials were being improvised. Also the problems and strategies in the utilization and improvisation of Audio-visual materials by teachers of Basic 7-9 Home Economics in Uyo local government area were investigated.
The following questions were answered in the course of this study
1. What Audio-visual materials are available for teaching basic 7-9
Home Economics students?
2. To what extent do Home Economic teachers of basic 7-9 utilize the available Audio-visual materials?
3. What are the various Audio-visual material being improvised by basic 7-9 teachers of Home Economics?
4. In what ways are the various Audio-visual materials being improvised for teaching Basic 7-9 Home Economics students?
5. What problems do basic 7-9 teachers encounter in improvising Audio-visual materials for teaching?
6. What strategies can be adopted to enhance basic 7-9 Home
Economic teachers’ improvisation of Audio-visual materials?
The following null hypotheses were be tested at 0.05 level of significance
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on their extent of
utilization of available Audio-visual materials for teaching.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the various
Audio-visual materials improvised by them.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the ways through which they improvised the various Audio-visual materials.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the problems they encounter in improvising Audio-visual materials.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the strategies for enhancing their improvisation of Audio-visual materials.
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