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TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - - vi
List of tables - - - - - - - - - - ix
List of Appendices - - - - - - - - - x
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Study - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - - 5
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - - 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - - - 6
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 6
1.7 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - - - 6
1.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 7
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 8
2.2 Conceptual Framework - - - - - - - 11
2.3 Empirical Study Reviews - - - - - - - 21
2.4 Summary of Literature Review - - - - - - 23
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - - 24
3.2 Area of Study - - - - - - - - - 24
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - - 25
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques - - - - - - 25
3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - - - - 25
3.6 Validation of the Instrument - - - - - - - 26
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - - - 26
3.8 Scoring - - - - - - - - - 27
3.9 Research Procedure - - - - - - - - 27
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - 27
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Presentation of the Result in tables - - - - - - 28
4.2 Discussion of the Results - - - - - - - 30
4.3 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - - 31
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - 32
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 33
5.3 Implications of the Findings - - - - - - - 33
5.4 Recommendations - - - - - - - - 34
5.5 Suggestions for further study - - - - - - - 34
References - - - - - - - - - 35
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Biology Curriculum for SS1 - - - - - - 12
Table 2: Biology curriculum for SS2 - - - - - - 12
Table 3: Biology Curriculum for SS3 - - - - - - 13
Table 4: Some examples of single factor inheritance in human
(Morphological factor) - - - - - - 16
Table 5: Table of Specification for Examining Genetics - - - 26
Table 6: Independent t-test analysis of mean Achievement Scores of Experimental and Control Group. - - - - - - - 28
Table 7: Independent t-test analyses of students’ mean scores by gender - 29
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendices Title Pages
A Letter of Permission - - - - - - 38
B Teaching package on Genetics for cooperative learning group 39
C Teaching package on Genetics for lecture method group - 43
D Biology Achievement Test (BAT) - - - - 47
E Marking Scheme on the Biology Achievement Test - 49
F Analysis of Test Scores of students taught genetics using cooperative learning and lecture method - - - - - 50
G Achievement score of male and female biology students taught genetics with cooperative learning - - - - - 53
H Reliability of Biology Achievement Test - - - 56
I Variable Listing - - - - - - 58
This project investigated Cooperative Learning Approach to teaching Genetics and Senior Secondary School Student Achievement in biology in Uyo Local Government Area. One school out of 15 public secondary school in the L.G.A. was selected for the study. The population size was 2750 students while the sample size was 100 senior secondary 2 (SS2) biology students. Quasi experimental research design was adopted for the study. The relevant data was collected using an instrument; Biology Achievement Test (BAT) with a reliability coefficient of 0.98. Analyses were carried out using the independent t-test. Two research questions were posed while two research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance to guide the study. The result showed that there was a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of experimental and control groups. Also there was no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students in the experimental group. It was recommended among others that biology concepts should be taught using cooperative learning approach so that the students can actively participate in the class lesson.
This chapter is written under the following subheadings; background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study, definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the study
Education is the most effective instrument for positive changes and development of the society and the individuals (Archibong, 2008). It has been given particular consideration by many societies, western or Africa. In Nigeria, it is an instrument "par excellence" for effecting national development (NPE, 2005). Farrant, 1981 describes education as the total process of human learning by which knowledge is impacted, faculties trained and skills, developed. Education therefore frees man from his illusions and helps him to identify himself with his environment.
In Nigeria, the realization of the need for a more meaningful and relevant education for development and self reliance is evident in the formulation of the National Policy on Education as well as the production of innovative curricula materials for school (Peter, 2005). The science curricula, specifically biology curriculum for the senior secondary schools were one of such curricula. According to Hornby (2002), science is the knowledge about the structure and behaviour of natural and physical world based on facts that can be proved. Science has been and would continue to be of tremendous importance because of its ability to explain many natural occurrences and the central role it plays in the world's current technology development (Olayiwola, 2014).
Ajaja (2007) identified the objectives of teaching science to include, knowledge of science academic discipline, to acquire the skills of scientific method, having clear explanations for societal issues through increasing interest in science literacy and societal goals, for personal needs and for career awareness. Biology is one of the science subjects that are offered at the secondary school education cycle in Nigeria. The knowledge of biology contribute a lot to scientific literacy so that people can understand the world around them and enable them to make informed choices about their health care, the environment and the society in which they live (Karen, 2008).
The term biology is derived from two Greek words "bios" and "logos" which mean life and study respectively. Victoria (2015) noted that biology is a natural science subject consisting of microscopic organisms in the biosphere. Biology therefore is the study of living things (plants and animals). It has become the central intellectual discipline especially in the aspect of biotechnology and it is indispensable in helping individuals to think more clearly about the values involved in this fast changing world (Thieman and Palladino, 2008). According to the National Policy on Education (2013), biology is an elective science subject to be chosen from physics, chemistry or health science. Inspire of the importance and popularity attached to biology and its application to everyday life, the performance of students in the subject has been consistently poor (Ige 2001).
The growing incidence of failure in biology rating performance in both Senior School Certificate Examination (WAEC 2004-2008) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB 2004-2008) were occasioned by poor state of resources for teaching and learning biology and the environment under which biology takes place. Another reason for the poor performance is the abstraction and processes involved in some topics that are not physically observable (Locke and McDermid, 2005; Ruiyong 2004). One of such topics is genetics which is an important or difficult topic to teach and learn at school. Thus, to acquire any successful teaching and learning process, it is necessary that every teacher should decide on the appropriate instructional strategies in collaboration with good instructional materials (Kichin, 2003).
Constructivist view of learning holds that students construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. The impact and development of this view led to different strategies to be employed in the teaching and learning of science. Specific examples among constructivist approaches include Cooperative Learning Approach. Cooperative Learning Approach is an educational approach which aims at organizing class room activities into academic and social learning experiences. It is the instructional use of small groups to help students maximize their own and each other’s learning.
The use of cooperative learning approach demonstrates overwhelmingly positive results and are cross curricula (Brown,H. and Ciuffetelli, D. C, 2009). In a cooperative setting, students work together to attain group goals that cannot be obtained by working individually or by working competitively. In such class room structure, student discusses subject matter, help each other learn and provide encouragement for members of the group (Johnson 1994). Lessons taught with cooperative learning are arranged so that each student ranging from the fastest to the slowest learner, has a contribution to make (Sapon-Shevin and Schniedewind, 1990). Thus students would be encouraged to learn even when the concept is difficult to learn. Slavin (1990) reports that cooperative learning was found to increase attendance, time on task, enjoyment of school and classes, motivation and independence.
Cooperative learning is an active pedagogy that fosters higher academic achievement. Slavin (1996) identified that cooperative learning has been linked to increase the academic achievement of learners at all ability levels. Also Hattie (2009) found that cooperative learning was one of the more effective means of instruction compared to a plethora of other factors influencing academic achievement. The learners must personally be involved as this form of active learning provides students with the opportunity to not only engage in discussion but to also become critical thinkers (Totten, 1991). Thus, the teaching of biological concepts like genetics should emphasis cooperative learning approach because through the active participation of students in learning, the level of abstraction in genetics is minimized and the students become critical thinkers.
Students, who fully participate in group activities exhibit collaborative behaviours, provide constructive feedback and cooperate with their groups, have a higher likelihood of receiving higher test scores and course grades at the end of the semester or term (Tsay, Mina and Brady, Miranda, 2010). But the problem in many secondary schools is that some instructors continue to teach with traditional methods of instruction such as lecture and note taking instead of using methods in which active learning takes place. It is in line with this background that this study attempts to examine the rationale for using Cooperative Learning Approach to teaching Genetics and Senior Secondary School Students Achievement Biology in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the problem
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