COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING METHODS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING METHODS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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ABSTRACT
This study examined comparative assessment of teaching methods and academic performance of pupils in social studies in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised all teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Uyo. A sample size of 90 respondents was selected through cluster sampling technique, from 6 primary schools for the study. Data were collected through the instruments of questionnaire and achievement test. Four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance using independent t-test and social studies achievement test. The result showed that pupils academic performance in social studies differ with the use of observation and lecture methods, while there was no significant difference in pupils academic performance based on enquiry and discussion methods. Hence it was recommended that teachers should use observation method in social studies lessons to help pupils develop critical thinking and discover knowledge by themselves. Discussion method was recommended for active class involvement, while lecture method should be used with questioning and illustration techniques to produce a positive result.  






TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE                                                                                                   PAGE

Cover Page… … … … … … … … … i
Title Page… … … … … … … … … … ii                                  
Approval Page… … … … … … … … … iii                          
Certification… … … … … … … … … iv                             
Dedication… … … … … … … … … v                                          
Acknowledgements… … … … … … … … vi                   
Abstract… … … … … … … … … … vii              
Table of Contents… … … … … … … … viii   
List of Tables… … … … … … … … … xi   

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study… … … … … … 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem… … … … … …    4
1.3 Purpose of the Study… … … … … … …    5
1.4 Research Questions… … … … … … … 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses… … … … … … …      6          
1.6 Significance of the Study… … … … … …      6
1.7 Limitation of the Study… … … … … … 7
1.8 Definition of Terms… … … … … … …  8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Observation Method and Pupils Academic Performance… 9
2.2 Enquiry Method and Pupils Academic Performance… … 11 
2.3 Lecture Method and Pupils Academic Performance… … 14 
2.4 Discussion Method and Pupils Academic Performance… … 17 
2.5 Summary of Literature Review… … … … … 21 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Area of the Study… … … … … … … 21 
3.2 Research Design… … … … … … … 23 
3.3 Population and Sample… … … … … … … 23 
3.4 Research Instrument… … … … … … … 24 
3.5 validation and Reliability of the Instrument… … … 24 
3.6 Administration of the Instrument… … … … … 25 
3.7 Method of Data Analysis… … … … … … 25  

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND 
   DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Answering of Research Questions… … … … … 26 
4.1.1 Research Question 1… … … … … … … 26
4.1.2 Research Question 2… … … … … … … 27
4.1.3 Research Question 3… … … … … … … 27
4.1.4 Research Question 4… … … … … … … 28
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses… … … … … … … 29 
4.2.1 Hypothesis 1… … … … … … … … 29
4.2.2 Hypothesis 2… … … … … … … … 30
4.2.3 Hypothesis 3… … … … … … … … 31
4.2.4 Hypothesis 4… … … … … … … … 32
4.3 Discussion of Findings… … … … … … … 33
4.3.1 Observation Method and Academic Performance… … 33
4.3.2 Enquiry Method and Academic Performance… … … 34
4.3.3 Lecture Method and Academic Performance… … … 34
4.3.4 Discussion Method and Pupils’ Academic Performance… 35

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND           
                                 RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary… … … … … … … … … 36               
5.2 Conclusion… … … … … … … … 37                  
5.3 Recommendations… … … … … … … 37                    
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study… … … … … 38                                 
REFERENCES… … … … … … … 39
APPENDICES… … … … … … … … 41



LIST OF TABLES
TABLE                  TITLE                                                      PAGE
1: Mean and standard deviation of the difference in 
pupils’ academic performance in social studies 
based on the usage of observation method… … … 26

2: Mean and standard deviation of the difference in 
pupils’ academic performance in social studies 
based on the usage of inquiry method…… … … 27

3: Mean and standard deviation of the difference in 
pupils’ academic performance based on the usage 
of lecture method… … … … … … 28

4: Mean and standard deviation of the difference in 
pupils’ academic performance inn social studies 
based on the usage of discussion method… … … 27

5: Result of independent t-test analysis of difference in 
pupils’ academic performance in social studies based 
on the usage of observation method… … … … 28

6: Result of independent t-test analysis of difference in 
pupils’ academic performance in social studies on the 
usage of inquiry method… … … … … 30

7: Result of independent t-test analysis of difference in 
pupils’ academic performance in social studies based 
on the usage of lecture method… … … … 31

8: Result of independent t-test analysis of difference in 
pupils’ academic performance inn social studies based 
on the usage of discussion method… … … … 32
  
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of the Study 
Teaching involves the impartation of knowledge on the learners by the teacher. The extent to which the teacher can do this depends greatly on the methods and strategies he uses during the teaching – learning process. Where the method is defective, the teaching – learning process will be affected negatively. Teaching method forms the integral part of the teaching job. In traditional Nigeria society, the task of educating the young was the responsibility of the elders of the community. As technology and industrial development began to influence and change the nature and values of the rural and urban communities, the role of teaching was passed to the professional teachers. Unlike informal education of that era, teaching in the formal setting demands a great deal of methods, techniques and strategies. Therefore teachers should be vested with this methodology for the success of our educational system. What this means is that a teacher who requires a great capacity to teach and perform well in his job, requires the knowledge of choice of teaching strategy suitable for a particular learning situation. This is so because as times are changing, our educational system is passing through series of challenges, which makes changes in teaching techniques, imminent.

In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered method to impart knowledge, as against learner centered methods. Until today questions about effectiveness of teaching methods on pupils’ learning ability have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research. This is because methods and strategies are the vehicles of change carrying the learners from where they were before the lesson to where the teacher wants them to reach, which is achieving the lessons’ objectives (Nwosu, 2014). Social studies according to Adarelegbe (1988) is a problem approach discipline through which man learns how to solve his multifarious problems facing him in his environment. This presupposes that it should be taught with special methods and studied as an integral whose ultimate bearing is to help the child to acquire knowledge, values and skills to survive in his society.
Besides, children learn through different avenues of teaching. What “A” learns through lecture method in a particular situation may not induce the same learning in “B” in another situation. Hence, for effective teaching, the teacher must employ methods, techniques and strategies in teaching. These three terms, methods, technique and strategies are often used interchangeably to mean, “A way of doing something”, but they convey different meanings. While teaching method is the overall procedure used to teach a particular lesson, techniques or strategy is the art or skill of performance. Etuk, Udosen and Edem (2004) confirm that in implementing a method, a method, the teacher employs techniques. This means that a teacher may use discussion method, but the way he ask questions to participants is his own technique. In this regard, Eboh (1995) advised that a teacher should know what method and which techniques to use in a given lesson situation to achieve the stated objectives. 
A number of writers and educational researchers are convinced that the type of method and strategy adopted by teachers in teaching affects pupils’ motivation and academic performance. Sequel to this, Eboh (1995) has presented a list of teaching methods and techniques in Social Studies to include Observation Method; Enquiry Method; Expository Method; Discussion Method; Interview Method; and Process Skill Method. On the other hand, instructional techniques which should be properly applied are: Dramatization Techniques, Discovery Technique, Assignment Technique, Role Play, Field Trip, Simulation, Lecturing, Project Technique, Questioning Technique, etc.  
There have been a lot of controversies as to which of these methods, techniques and strategies enhance pupils understanding and academic performance in Social Studies. It is the truth about this controversy that this research is out to establish.

1.2 Statement of the Problem 
There are categories of people teaching social studies in the different levels of educational institutions without any professional knowledge of the methodology of teaching the subject. That is why the regular poor performance of the majority of pupils’ in social studies in primary schools is fundamentally linked to the application of ineffective teaching methods employed by teachers to impart knowledge on the learners (Adunala, 2011). It is a known fact that not all teaching methods are suitable for teaching Social Studies lesson and that some methods are not suitable to the age bracket of some school pupils.
The allegation is that some teachers make the wrong choice of teaching methods in their social studies lesson which may result in poor performance of pupils in social studies internal and external examinations. They (teachers) may also be ignorant of the fact that not one teaching method may be appropriate in every situation. It is also observed that even when the teacher is using appropriate teaching methods, the techniques and strategies adopted may not affect any change in the moral behaviour of school pupils.  
Social studies is a subject which seek to correct the ills of the society by teaching moral values and skills necessary for effective citizenship. There have been this uncertainty which poses a problem as to whether teaching methods (observation, inquiry, lecture and discussion) affects pupils academic performance in social studies in Uyo Local Government Area. This uncertainty prompted this research study. 
1.3 Purpose of the Study 
The purpose of this study was to investigate and report whether the choice of teaching method influence pupils academic performance in social studies in Uyo Local Government Area. Hence, the specific objectives of this study were to:
1. Examine the difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on observation method. 
2. Examine the difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on inquiry method. 
3. Examine the difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on lecture method. 
4. Examine the difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on discussion method. 
1.4 Research Questions 
1. How does pupils’ academic performance in social studies differ based on the use of observation method?
2. How does pupils’ academic performance in social studies differ based on the use of inquiry method?
3. How does pupils’ academic performance in social studies differ based on the use of lecture method?
4. How does pupils’ academic performance in social studies differ based on the use of discussion method?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
The null hypotheses stated as follows: 
1. There is no significant difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on usage of observation method. 
2. There is no significant difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on usage of inquiry method.
3. There is no significant difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on lecture method.
4. There is no significant difference in pupils’ academic performance in social studies based on discussion method. 

1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in the following ways:
1. It will help teachers to choose appropriate teaching methods for social studies. 
2. It will help teachers to compare teaching methods and decide on which method is suitable to which situation. 
3. It will help the pupils to understand the subject and perform better in their examinations.
4. It will enhance the study habits of pupils and inculcate the right type of values in them. 
5. It will develop in pupils the skills of observation, inquiry, problem solving and interaction in class. 

1.7 Limitation of the Study 
The research study was limited by lack of materials and the finances to acquire same. The researchers were also faced with time constraints; hence they had to combine this study with their tight academic works. The research was carried out with primary 5 pupils during school hours; hence the children and their teachers were very busy with their school work, thus the researchers made use of the long and short breaks to administer their questionnaire. Impediment also occurred in materials and data collection (Internet, questioning and interviewing) by sufficient funds. 
1.8 Definition of Terms 
Comparative Assessment of Teaching Method refers to a critical examination of teaching methods to determine the difference when compared with other methods.  
Observation Method: This is a teaching method where the pupils learn through observing a process or event.
Inquiry Method: This is a teaching method where pupils are exposed to learn through inquiry into, and finding solutions to problems. 
Lecturing Method: This refers to teaching by verbal representation. 
Discussion Method: This is a teaching method where the teacher and all the pupils engage in discussing diverse ways of solving a problem. 
Academic Performance: This connotes pupils’ performance inn social studies examination as reflected in their test scores. 


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