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The main aim of selecting this topic’ causes and implication of drug abuse among the youths in Kaduna South Local Government Area” comes about as a result of the realization of the many and important roles that we are suppose to carry out as future counselors and educators of programmes for promotion of the general living condition of our less privileged persons of our nation and local communities especially the youths.
During the past decade, some advances have been made in understanding the nature and extent of the drug use problem encountered by minority youth. I results obtained from this research have provided suggestive evidence that American Indian high school seniors are more likely than their non-Hispanic white, African-American, and Asian-American counterparts to use and abuse licit and illicit drugs (Beauvais et al. 1989; Bachman et al. 1990). Data also suggest that stress caused by assimilation into American society and lack of family cohesiveness and support may be related to the drug use behavior of Hispanic and African-American youth (Vega et al.,) this volume szapocznik and Kurtines 1980). Information on the prevalence and causes of drug use among minority youth has been utilized by human service and health care providers, law enforcement officials, and policymakers to develop interventions and policies geared toward addressing the drug problem experienced by these youth. Despite these research advances, little is known about the patterns, causes, and consequences of illicit and licit drug use and abuse among minority youth. The limited literature suggests that, because of cultural influence, unique economic situations, and formal and informal social network systems, the drug using behavior of minority youth may vary significantly from that of nonminority youth. Thus, there is an urgent need for etiologic research that investigates the interactive roles of intrapersonal, interpersonal, familial, cultural community, and other larger societal factors on the onset, casual use, escalation to use, maintenance, development of dependence, cessation of use, and relapse to use of licit and illicit drugs among minority youth. Studies are also needed that would investigate studies to determine the prevalence of drug use among Asian-American and Hispanic youth of South and Central American and Caribbean extraction. Research on the interrelationship between drug abuse and violence among dropouts, gang members , and other minority youth should also be undertaken.
This paucity of research on the drug use behavior of minority youth can be attributed to several factors; the following ones seem to stand out:
1. Inadequate exploration of the important role that ethnic and racial factors.
2. Inaccessibility of these population to drug abuse researches because of the mistrust that many ethnic groups, including African- American, have toward drug abuse researchers;
3. Lack of trained minority drug abuse researchers;
4. Lack of well-designed community-based research projects that would utilize qualitative and quantitative methodologies in combination when collecting data on minority youth; and
5. Lack of resources to conduct well-designed drug abuse etiologic research projects.
The lack of information on the extent and nature of drug use the abuse problems among minority youth limits the development of culturally relevant and, therefore, effective drug abuse prevention and treatment programs directed toward this group. Human service and health care workers who provide drug abuse services to minority youth have long argued that current drug abuse prevention and treatment programs are not effective in addressing the drug use problems found among these youth. They attribute this failure to the fact that the majority of preventive and treatment programs are based on data collected from research studies conducted on nonminority youth. Because the problem of drug use and abuse affects the physical and emotional wellbeing of minority youth, there is an urgency to develop interventions that will effectively counteract this problem. With the sense of urgency, on July 17-18, 1991, a technical review-titled “Epidemiologic Drug Abuse Research on Minority Youth: Methodological issues and Recent Research Advance,” sponsored by the Epidemiologic Research Branch, Notional Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Division of Epidemiologic and Prevention Research- was held in Bethesda, MD. The major objective of this conference was to stimulate further research on the potentially unique nature of the drug-using behaviours of minority youth by reviewing current research and proposing future research direction. Data ‘were presented in recent findings from theory-driven research studies on the etiology of drug use among minority youth. In addition, information regarding methodological problems and other barriers affecting the lack and quality of Research in his field also was presented.
The papers presented at this technical review are contained in this monograph and fall into three categories:
(1) Review of theory-driven research findings and other theoretical considerations.
(2) Methodological problems and other barriers, and
(3) Future research orientation. The first set of chapters presents findings from theory-driven research or discusses theoretical issues relevant to research on the drug-using behavior or minority youth. In their chapter, Rodriguez and colleagues, Oetting and Recio Adrados seek to address the important role that acculturation-related stress and cultural values toward substance abuse play in the drugs-using behavior of Hispanic and American India youth.
The finding presented by Rodriguez and colleagues point to the need to expand existing theoretical models to include in sub cultural component when exploring the drug –using behavior of Puerto Rican and other Hispanic youth. They provide evidence that suggest that future etiologic research on the drug using behavior of Puerto Rican youth should extensively explore the role that culture value toward drug use and loss of cultural identity play in the drug using. Behavior and drug-dealing activities of these youth. Oetting’s chapter discusses the importance of cultural identification in the will-being of American Indian youth.
According to Oetting, those American Indian youth who lose their cultural identify are more susceptible to use and abuse of drugs than those who do not. Recio Adrados provides a review of different theoretical models underpinning the development of scales to measure the complex phenomenon of acculturation. He argues that many of the efforts made in measuring the construct of culture are in need of further theoretical expansion. Recio Adrados calls for the development of a multidisciplinary theoretical approach to further the knowledge base regarding the importance of cultural changes in the lives of immigrant groups. He states that such a theoretical approach could lead to the development of scales that would more accurately determine the impact that cultural changes and cultural values have on the drug-using behavior and emotional well-being of ethnic minority youth. The chapters by Brook and by Krohn and Thornberry explore the role that network and family systems have on the drug-using behavior of Puerto Rican and African-American youth. Brook provides the results from a project that explored the impact of familial relationship and attachment, the school environment, peer relationships, individual personality traits, and other domains on the drug-using behavior of African-American and Puerto Rican youth. These results suggest that the domains of personality, family, and drug context have direct influence on the drug-using behavior of these youth. In particular, Brook found that non-conflictual and affectionate mutual attachment relationships between parents and children led to lower levels of drug use among these children. Similarly, Krohn and Thornberry present findings from a research project that explored the network systems of white non-Hispanic, African-
American, and Puerto Rican youth drug users and nonusers, the findings suggest that nonusers tend to have stronger family network systems than do users regardless of race and ethnic background. On the other hand, users appear to have more supportive and intimate relationships with their friends than do nonusers. However, the friendship networks of users were less stable than those of nonusers regardless of race and ethnic background overall, family networks play a more important role in the drug-using behavior of Puerto Rican youth than African-American youth and white non-Hispanic youth. The last chapter in this section, by King and Thayer, examines two promising theoretical models that might explain substance use among American Indian youth: a life stress model and a modified peer cluster model. According to King and Thayer, the life stress model proposes that the primary predictive factors for substance abuse are life stress, availability of social support from family, and other formal and informal social institutions. The peer cluster theory hypothesizes that the strongest predictive factors for substance abuse are peer influences, particularly association with deviant peers. Both models were tested to determine that relative ability to predict rates of substance use among the youth interviewed. Goodness-of-fit indices demonstrated that both models were of equal quality in accounting for the patterns among factors hypothesized to relate to substance abuse. The second section of this monograph addresses a variety of methodological issues affecting the quality of data collected on the drug use and abuse behavior of minority youth.
Findings from the research illustrate the need for better data collection procedures when conducing drug use research in minority populations. Vega and colleagues present information on the development of scales that accurately measure the impact that culture changes and orientation have on the drug-using behavior of Hispanic adolescents. They provide a detailed description of the steps taken in the development of these scales, including the problems encountered. They argue that the development of such scales is only a first step in the difficult process of developing an integrative theoretical approach to exploring the drug-using behavior of Hispanic and other ethnic minority youth. Wallace and Bachman address the critical issue regarding the reliability and validity of self-reports in student-based studies of minority populations. Using data from a large national representative sample of high school seniors, Wallace and Bachman investigated whether minority high school seniors underreport their drug use. Examination of the data suggests that, although caution should be used when reporting and interpreting racial differences in school-based survey responses, especially when such differences are relatively small, large racial and ethnic subgroup differences in self-reported drug use are generally valid and reliable. The chapter by LoSciuto and associates examines the impact that mode of interview (face-to-face vs. telephone) of interview has on the self-report of rates of drug use of 18- to 25-year-old African-Americans and Hispanics compared with self-reports by same-age and older white non-Hispanic respondents.
The findings suggest that the response rates for the telephone interview were similar to those reported in face-to-face interviews for white non-Hispanics but not for African-Americans. Telephone interviews resulted in a lower response rate for alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use compared with the face-to-face interviews for African-Americans. Rates for Hispanics were not included because of the small number of subjects in this study. The problems associated with collecting data on the drug-using behavior of Hispanic school dropouts is the focus of the chapter by Chavez. Issues related to identifying, interviewing, and retaining Hispanic school dropouts in drug abuse studies and problems regarding the definition of what constitutes a school dropout are addressed. Recommendations are also made for the need for longitudinal studies and other research on this topic. Similarly, Joe and Pettiway both discuss issues related to the collection of data on ethnic gangs and young African-American addicts. Joe provides a brief overview of the current state of research on ethnic gangs, looking at the nature of these studies, primary methods used, and reasons for the sporadic development of an ethnic-specific focus. Second, Joe examines how researchers can begin studying ethnic gangs, focusing on the methodological procedures-specific tasks, general problems, specific ethnic concerns, and strategies-that researchers need to be aware of when conducting ethnographic-based research on ethnic, particularly Asian, gangs. Petti way discusses several methodological issues associated with identifying, gaining access to, and collecting data on young African-American drug users when utilizing an ethnographic approach. He also discusses the need to develop a plan of action to deal with the following issues: addressing safety concerns; hiring, training, and supervising the project staff; learning street language; ensuring continual funding of the project; and obtaining cooperation of the academic institution or organization with which the researcher is affiliated in the overall administration of the project. Bush and colleagues focus on the need to develop effective plans to track inner-city youth who participate in school-based drug use and abuse studies. The authors provide a detailed description of the activities undertaken in their study to ensure maximum subject retention. Essential to their retention efforts were the development of a good working relationship with school officials and a survey log to allow the staff to track students while protecting their identity. Bush and cow orders argue that, without a good tracking system, school-based drug abuse longitudinal studies on urban samples may be jeopardized. The chapter by
Debro and Coney emphasizes the need to bridge the existing gaps between drug abuse researchers and African-American communities. To obtain access to African-American communities, drug abuse researchers first must develop rapport with these communities. Essential to the improvement of this relationship is the recognition by researchers that subjects, as well as the larger minority communities, need to be appropriately compensated. In addition, the lack of well-trained African-American researchers negatively affects the collection of data on the drug use behavior of minority individuals. The final methodological chapter is by Westermeyer, which focuses on:
(1) Presenting data on the drug-using behavior of young minority refugees of Southeast Asian and other ancestry and
(2) Making future recommendations on etiologic drug abuse research on this population. The results suggest that many refugees adopt a drug-using lifestyle and that additional research is needed to understand the drug-using behavior of these individuals. The concluding chapter of this monograph discusses the need for additional etiologic and epidemiologic research on the nature and extent of the drug use and abuse problem among minority youth. De La Rosa and colleagues emphasize the need for the development of a more integrative conceptual model and data collection approach in future research on the drug-using behavior of minority youth. The development of such a comprehensive approach can lead to the development of more effective drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies to address the problem of drug use and abuse confronted by minority youth. Participants, authors, and other individuals provided valuable contributions to the technical review and to this monograph. It is hoped that this monograph will serve to inform public health officials, clinicians, and researchers concerning some of the basic issues regarding the drug-using behavior of minority youth, and stimulate further research directed toward the prevalence, patterns, patterns, causes, and consequences of drug use and abuse among minority youth.
1.1 DEFINATION OF THE TERM
A drug is said to be any chemical substances that is capable of affecting living processes. In respiration, growth, excretion, locomotion and reproduction. G.A Olayede (1996).
Also, according to the American Heritage Dictionary New College Edition, Drugs is a substance used as machine in the treatment of disease.
Drugs can be divided into two from the definitions. They are medical and social.
A medically used drug involves use of drugs or medicine for the treatment of disease and relief of symptoms. This medicine are only safe when prescribed by doctors and other competent health personnel and when obtained legitimate sources like Clinics, Hospital, Licensed Chemist and patient medicine dealers.
Social use of drugs involves the use of certain substance for recreational purposes. Although all drugs used this way are harmful, some of them are socially acceptable e.g. Kola nut and Alcohol.
Drug abuse is problem of great magnitude in Kaduna South Local Government area. There is no week that will pass without a person/ persons being arrested in Kurmi in Kakuri Kaduna South and other.
Kaduna South metropolis for drugs related offender.
Positive/importance use of drugs:
Drugs are use for man in the treatment, cure and prevention of disease. In this regards, their use must be carefully prescribed and their administration carefully monitored. In this way, any out way side effect can be quickly dealt with and corrected. It is the use of drugs by individual without prescription that is drug abuse. That has given drugs a bad name. We should note the too much everything is bad. Even water can still kill through hydration of the brain. It is infused into the blood stream, then by overloading it. So anything that appears safe may be dangerous if taken in excess.
1.2 IMPORTANCE OF STUDY
Because of the rapid increase of drug addicts in Kaduna South Local Government Area, this topic is chosen to critically look and find the causes and the implication of it in the life of the youths in the metropolis.
Also to find a possible solution on how to help the drug addicts realize the dangers of taking illegal drugs.
The consequences of taken it. At the end of the project, they will know the extent to which drug abuse has ruined the career and personality of some youths who unfortunately have fallen victims of drug abuse in one way or the other.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Youths in Kaduna South Local Government Area, mingles the other children around their areas especially the Hausas (destitute) who have nothing much to do than to be moving from one street to another begging and picking pockets, before you know it they are into drugs. And those that their parents abandoned are into drugs too. Ranging from the age of (13) thirteen to (30) years of age.
THE CAUSES OF THE PROBLEMS ARE:
(a) Peer Groups
Many children are introduced into drugs by their age group (friends) they go about with them see them drink, inhale or inject themselves with these drugs. E.g cocaine, Heroin, Marijuana, P.C.P, LSD, Valium, Indian Hemp, morphine and even glue etc. This friends will ask them to sniff a little or take a little, telling them that it is not harmful from there they become addicted to it.
(b) Lack of Parental Care:
In those days parents monitor the movement of their children. This is unlike now, because of the desire to get rich quickly. Parents go to work leaving their children with their maids or house boys of which the maids or houseboys behaviours are questionable. For instance, they indulge into or participation in this abnormal behavior which he/she tends to teach their children, while their parent are away ion their offices.
(c) Rural – Urban Migration
The rural – urban young drifters are not left out. They come to the town with the hope to get a job and when the job is not forth coming they start taking drugs and with time they become drug addicts. For example, a young man who came from Kwoi to Kurmi in Kaduna to live with is brother, he later join a bad group of boys who introduced him into drugs where they go to stores and steal drugs and take. It is believed that when you take these drugs it makes you to become high and be misbehaving.
On the other hand, taking of drugs unnecessarily without doctor’s prescription has its implication. They are:
(1) It damages the brain: it can even lead to sudden death e.g. (PCP).
(2) It causes mental illness on its users. Many people especially the youths we see on the streets or psychiatry homes are drug addicts and are affected by drugs. This mental illness can cause delusional abnormal thinking paranoia, panic reaction and acute psychosis e.g (cocaine). It interferes with intellectual ability of the students/youths and can affects classroom learning e.g (marijuana). Taking of dangerous drugs can lead to strokes, abnormal heart beat etc.
More so, drugs abuse has lead a good number of our youths into the prison because of armed robbery and homicide committed under the influence or effect of drugs.
Also many lives have been lost through road traffic accident, after taken the drugs. Others of which have been through careless drivers who are under the influence of the drugs or alcohol.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
(1) Are young people mostly the victims of drugs abuse?
(2) If you take drugs like cocaine, heroine, Indian hemp, Valium 5 and cigarette does it affect or damages ones brain?
(3) The causes of drug abuse could be due to the following. Peer Group, evil association, poverty/illiteracy and child abuse.
(4) Does economic status of parents contribute to a child’s change of behavior like the taking of Drugs?
(5) Is it true that youth in Kaduna South takes drugs?
1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
This project is limited to the youthful population of Kaduna South Local Government Area. It is to make clear to the people and the local government authority how the abuse of drug has ruined the life of those who are unlucky to have fallen victims.
Due to time constraints, logistics and transportation, the researcher would love to extend his research to the state level and research into other aspects of the youths, like early child sex, sex education, early girl child prostitution, broken homes, mental problems and other signs of abnormalities.
Therefore, this project is not aim to intrude into any body’s privacy rather as a guide and service to the individual and groups. It is aimed to disabuse the individual especially the mind of those who think their life worth not living unless under the influence of drugs and to correct the impression that the addicts/abusers cannot achieve their goals unless when taking these substances.
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