A STUDY OF JOB STRESS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TAMBUWAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE

A STUDY OF JOB STRESS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TAMBUWAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE

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ABSTRACT

 

This paper take a look at the study of job stress among secondary school teachers in Tambuwal Local Government Area of Sokoto State. One hundred and five (105) teachers in five secondary schools were randomly selected using simple sampling techniques. A 15-item questionnaire was drawn in line with the four research questions raised for the study. Data were collected using a research-made questionnaire titled Job Stress and Teachers Effectiveness Questionnaire (JSTEQ). Collected data were analyzed through the use of table and percentage. Findings revealed that most of the teachers find teaching job stressful and students misbehavior also contributed to teachers’ stress. Subsequently, it is recommended that government and authority concerned should reduce with urgency all identified stressors in schools for the teachers to carryout their work diligently.


CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background to the Study

In the educational process, the teacher occupies a very important place. A teacher is the medium through which educational objectives and plans can be actualized. For this, the teacher must have sound, mental and physical health. Teaching is a profession where every day radical changes occur in the educational system. These changes are likely to increase, rather than reduce the level of stress among teachers. Secondary school teachers experience higher level of stress due to demanding situations, while dealing with students. Overcrowded classes, heavy syllabus and inadequate facilities make teacher’s work more complex. Researchers in service industry like nursing, hotel and police have highlighted that working personnel experience varying degree of stress and sometime burnout (Indira, 2008). Correlation between job satisfaction and performance has been proved in above mentioned professions (Nursing and Police). Present study is undertaking to study the job stress among secondary school teachers in relation to their teaching effectiveness and also how
8
 
the perceptions of teachers and their students differed on teaching effectiveness (E-Journal of All Indian Association for Educational Research, Indira, 2008).

The importance of teachers in a nation building cannot be over emphasized. One cannot discuss the role of education in the National development without giving central attention to teachers as the real agents of development. National development hinges on the contribution of teachers towards attainment of academic excellence by the students. The major work of teachers is human resources development and no nation can develop above her human resources. The different professions trained by teachers have their own contribution to make in the national development. In spite of the central role teachers occupied in the national development, researches by Adeyemo and Ogunyemi (2005), Dorman (2003) Linde (2000) have identified stress as one of the cardinal factors militating against effective performance in school.

In community day secondary school, Tambuwal L.G.A, Sokoto State, Secondary School Teachers themselves are widely



9
 
recognized to be subjected to stress in their daily work (Kyriacou 2001; Troman, 2006; Wiley, 2000).

Teaching profession has been categorized as an occupation at high risk for stress (Chan & Hui 2005; Pithers & Forgaly, 2004). The Health and safety executive (2000) in the united kingdom reported that teaching is the most stressful occupation, compared to other occupations such as nursing, managing, professional and community service occupations. It was also reported that two of five teachers in the country experienced stress, compared to one in five workers from other occupations.

Job stress has been identified as the experiences of unpleasant, negative emotions such as anger, frustration, anxiety, depression and nervousness, resulting from some aspect of their work as teachers. The amount of researches on job stress has increased steadily and has now become major researcher topic in many countries (Kyriacou, 2001).

The stressfulness of teaching as an occupation is widely recognized and several studies have been initiated in the development countries to address its causes such programmes
10
 
includes, providing access to employee assistance programs (EAPs) for those who wish to attend, emotion focused strategies (releasing pent feeling through exercise, or meditation) (Admiral, Korthagen & Wobbles 2000) In Tambuwal local government area of Sokoto state as elsewhere, teachers have been leaving their profession in increasing numbers despite this trend during the past two years of economic recession, a high proportion of teachers who remain in their job freely admit their dissatisfaction. It is the level of dissatisfaction and job stress among secondary school teachers that are focus of this research. The major factors that are responsible for this stress are poor remuneration and benefit, work load, delay in promotion or promotion without implementations heavy syllabus and inadequate facilities make teachers work more complex (Kyriacou, 2001).

This research work is aimed at studying job stress among the secondary school teachers’ in Tambuwal local government areas in Sokoto state. Plausible coping mechanisms that will reduce teachers’ job stress are equally recommended.



11
 
1.2 Statement of the Problem

The current turbulent environment in which some teachers conduct their work requires that authorities examine their practices. Working in the Nigerian teaching profession is an inherently stressful profession with long working hours, overcrowded classes, heavy syllabus and inadequate facilities, heavy workload, poor remuneration and benefit, students’ misbehavior, perceived burnout, physical and psychological demands of teachers in the class, make them more vulnerable to high levels of stress. The effects of stress are evidenced as increases in their perceived burnout, high medical bills, lateness to work, low productivity and increased in sick leaves. Despite the extremely negative effect of job stress on the human body and work performance, many secondary schools, in Tambuwal Local Government in Sokoto State are not being an exception to this scourge of job stress and its stress-related conditions that negatively affect teaching efficiency.

Furthermore, there has not been a conscious establishment of linkage between job stress and its effect on efficiency. It is in the light of these problems that the
12
 
researchers seek to bring to the fore the implication of job stress on the overall performance of teachers in schools.

1.3 Objectives of the Study.

1)  To find out the relationship between job stress and the teaching effectiveness.

2)  To find out the relationship between teachers work load and teaching effectiveness.

3)  To find out the relationship between job stress and their perceived burnout.

4)  To find out the relationship between job stress and students misbehavior.

1.7 Research Questions

To come up with solution to the identified problem, the study attempted to find answer to the following questions:

1)  What is the relationship between job stress and the teaching effectiveness.

2)  Is there any relationship between teachers’ workload and teaching effectiveness.

3)  What  is  the  relationship  between  job  stress  and  their

perceived burnout.

13
 
4)  What is the relationship between the teachers’ job stress and student misbehavior.

1.8 Research Hypotheses

1)  There is no significant relationship between job stress and the teachers’ efficiency.

2)  There is no significant relationship between teacher’ workload and teaching effectiveness.

3)  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job stress and their perceived burnout.

4)  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job stress and student misbehavior.

1.9 Significance of the Study

It is the belief of the researchers that the results of this study would be of good help in the following area.

a)  To create an awareness on teachers stress and how to deal with it.

b)  To bring about awareness on the effect of stress and how to control it.

c)  To find out the perceptions of teachers and their students

differed on job stress.

14
 
d)  To combat a problem, the awareness of the conditions, which lead to it are very important.

The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  examine  job  stress

among secondary school teachers in Tambuwal l.G.A, in Sokoto State. Above all, it is very important to know the causes of stress and how to proffer lasting solution to it. Stress management is important to healthy functioning or organizations or educational system as it seeks to increases productivity since one can clearly focus on tasks better memory, improved, immune system and better blood pressure. In Nigeria, job stress is not being given the attention it deserves and so very little has been done as far as assessing the role of stress on job performance in our educational system as well as other organizations are concerned (Dunham & Varma 2000).

The research will be of great significant to the study of job stress among secondary school teachers in Tambuwal L.G.A, In particular, the academic environment and the individual as well as teachers themselves on how to manage stress ways or method of managing job stress. Above all, it is very important to know the causes of stress and how to proffer lasting solution to
15
 
it. Stress management is important to healthy functioning or organizations or educational system as it seeks to increases productivity since one can clearly focus on tasks better memory, improved immune system and better blood pressure. In Nigeria, job stress is not being given the attention it deserves and so very little has been done as far as assessing the role of stress on job performance in our educational system as well as other organizations is concern.

Dunham and Varma (2000) suggested that, stress can be reduced by developing new skills or by diverting attention through humour physical activity. To cope under difficult conditions, teachers require both organization and personal support, including training in interpersonal problem solving and skills to deal with stress.

Lazarus and Folkmam (1994) in Robert and Jessica (2006) stated that, continual physical and mental adaptation are required to cope satisfactorily with demanding situations. Poor coping mechanisms have long been identified as a primary cause of stress (Head 1996; Montgomery & Rupp, 2005). Good coping skills include modifying thought process, learning
16
 
problem focused strategies (such as new skills in addressing stress) and emotion focused strategies (releasing pent up feelings through exercises, Talking and meditation (Admiral, Korthagen & Wubbels, 2000).

Fleur (2010) identified stress as a part of life for most people and cannot be eliminated completely, but it can be managed by a number of natural methods. Some of these natural ways of controlling stress include:

1.  Exercise: exercise will improve overall health and give one a sense of will being by the release of endorphins, thus boosting confidence and lowering stress levels. Regular exercise can also decrease the production of stress hormones and there fore help to better manage stressful situations. Reducing stress through exercise can give one a sense of well being and confidence. The more stress is reduced; the easier it becomes to cope with and eliminate stress.

2.  Relaxation: learning relaxation techniques will help to relax both mind and body, which is essential in the quest for better stress management. Relaxation can lower heart rate and blood pressure and increase blood flow to organs and muscles,
17
 
allowing an individual to feel more in control of a situation. A visit to a professional to learn relaxation techniques may be necessary, since relaxing can be surprisingly difficult for someone who is always tense and stressed. Exercise and Relaxation should be a regular just don’t have time to go to the gym to exercise or the time to found quite place in order to relax. What they fail is less stressed and probably more productive in the long run. Most companies give their staff a lunch break uses it, not to work but to exercise and relax.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study is to cover all secondary school teachers in Tambuwal local government of Sokoto state. The study is also limited to examine job stress among the teachers. Amongst these secondary schools, five secondary schools are going to be selected for the study.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

1.  Stress: Stress can be defines as the body’s reaction to a

change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response.



18
 
2.  Job Stress: Job stress is defined as the perception of a discrepancy between environmental demand (stressors) and individual capacities to fill these demands (Topper, 2007, 2003; Varca, 1999).

3.  Burnout: Burnout is the feeling of physical and emotional exhaustion due to stress from working with people under difficult demanding conditions.

4.  Stressor: Is a physical, psychological or social forces that puts real pressure or perceived demands on the body, emotions, minds or spirit of an individual. (Kyriacou, 2007).
CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background to the Study

In the educational process, the teacher occupies a very important place. A teacher is the medium through which educational objectives and plans can be actualized. For this, the teacher must have sound, mental and physical health. Teaching is a profession where every day radical changes occur in the educational system. These changes are likely to increase, rather than reduce the level of stress among teachers. Secondary school teachers experience higher level of stress due to demanding situations, while dealing with students. Overcrowded classes, heavy syllabus and inadequate facilities make teacher’s work more complex. Researchers in service industry like nursing, hotel and police have highlighted that working personnel experience varying degree of stress and sometime burnout (Indira, 2008). Correlation between job satisfaction and performance has been proved in above mentioned professions (Nursing and Police). Present study is undertaking to study the job stress among secondary school teachers in relation to their teaching effectiveness and also how
8
 
the perceptions of teachers and their students differed on teaching effectiveness (E-Journal of All Indian Association for Educational Research, Indira, 2008).

The importance of teachers in a nation building cannot be over emphasized. One cannot discuss the role of education in the National development without giving central attention to teachers as the real agents of development. National development hinges on the contribution of teachers towards attainment of academic excellence by the students. The major work of teachers is human resources development and no nation can develop above her human resources. The different professions trained by teachers have their own contribution to make in the national development. In spite of the central role teachers occupied in the national development, researches by Adeyemo and Ogunyemi (2005), Dorman (2003) Linde (2000) have identified stress as one of the cardinal factors militating against effective performance in school.

In community day secondary school, Tambuwal L.G.A, Sokoto State, Secondary School Teachers themselves are widely



9
 
recognized to be subjected to stress in their daily work (Kyriacou 2001; Troman, 2006; Wiley, 2000).

Teaching profession has been categorized as an occupation at high risk for stress (Chan & Hui 2005; Pithers & Forgaly, 2004). The Health and safety executive (2000) in the united kingdom reported that teaching is the most stressful occupation, compared to other occupations such as nursing, managing, professional and community service occupations. It was also reported that two of five teachers in the country experienced stress, compared to one in five workers from other occupations.

Job stress has been identified as the experiences of unpleasant, negative emotions such as anger, frustration, anxiety, depression and nervousness, resulting from some aspect of their work as teachers. The amount of researches on job stress has increased steadily and has now become major researcher topic in many countries (Kyriacou, 2001).

The stressfulness of teaching as an occupation is widely recognized and several studies have been initiated in the development countries to address its causes such programmes
10
 
includes, providing access to employee assistance programs (EAPs) for those who wish to attend, emotion focused strategies (releasing pent feeling through exercise, or meditation) (Admiral, Korthagen & Wobbles 2000) In Tambuwal local government area of Sokoto state as elsewhere, teachers have been leaving their profession in increasing numbers despite this trend during the past two years of economic recession, a high proportion of teachers who remain in their job freely admit their dissatisfaction. It is the level of dissatisfaction and job stress among secondary school teachers that are focus of this research. The major factors that are responsible for this stress are poor remuneration and benefit, work load, delay in promotion or promotion without implementations heavy syllabus and inadequate facilities make teachers work more complex (Kyriacou, 2001).

This research work is aimed at studying job stress among the secondary school teachers’ in Tambuwal local government areas in Sokoto state. Plausible coping mechanisms that will reduce teachers’ job stress are equally recommended.



11
 
1.2 Statement of the Problem

The current turbulent environment in which some teachers conduct their work requires that authorities examine their practices. Working in the Nigerian teaching profession is an inherently stressful profession with long working hours, overcrowded classes, heavy syllabus and inadequate facilities, heavy workload, poor remuneration and benefit, students’ misbehavior, perceived burnout, physical and psychological demands of teachers in the class, make them more vulnerable to high levels of stress. The effects of stress are evidenced as increases in their perceived burnout, high medical bills, lateness to work, low productivity and increased in sick leaves. Despite the extremely negative effect of job stress on the human body and work performance, many secondary schools, in Tambuwal Local Government in Sokoto State are not being an exception to this scourge of job stress and its stress-related conditions that negatively affect teaching efficiency.

Furthermore, there has not been a conscious establishment of linkage between job stress and its effect on efficiency. It is in the light of these problems that the
12
 
researchers seek to bring to the fore the implication of job stress on the overall performance of teachers in schools.

1.3 Objectives of the Study.

1)  To find out the relationship between job stress and the teaching effectiveness.

2)  To find out the relationship between teachers work load and teaching effectiveness.

3)  To find out the relationship between job stress and their perceived burnout.

4)  To find out the relationship between job stress and students misbehavior.

1.7 Research Questions

To come up with solution to the identified problem, the study attempted to find answer to the following questions:

1)  What is the relationship between job stress and the teaching effectiveness.

2)  Is there any relationship between teachers’ workload and teaching effectiveness.

3)  What  is  the  relationship  between  job  stress  and  their

perceived burnout.

13
 
4)  What is the relationship between the teachers’ job stress and student misbehavior.

1.8 Research Hypotheses

1)  There is no significant relationship between job stress and the teachers’ efficiency.

2)  There is no significant relationship between teacher’ workload and teaching effectiveness.

3)  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job stress and their perceived burnout.

4)  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job stress and student misbehavior.

1.9 Significance of the Study

It is the belief of the researchers that the results of this study would be of good help in the following area.

a)  To create an awareness on teachers stress and how to deal with it.

b)  To bring about awareness on the effect of stress and how to control it.

c)  To find out the perceptions of teachers and their students

differed on job stress.

14
 
d)  To combat a problem, the awareness of the conditions, which lead to it are very important.

The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to  examine  job  stress

among secondary school teachers in Tambuwal l.G.A, in Sokoto State. Above all, it is very important to know the causes of stress and how to proffer lasting solution to it. Stress management is important to healthy functioning or organizations or educational system as it seeks to increases productivity since one can clearly focus on tasks better memory, improved, immune system and better blood pressure. In Nigeria, job stress is not being given the attention it deserves and so very little has been done as far as assessing the role of stress on job performance in our educational system as well as other organizations are concerned (Dunham & Varma 2000).

The research will be of great significant to the study of job stress among secondary school teachers in Tambuwal L.G.A, In particular, the academic environment and the individual as well as teachers themselves on how to manage stress ways or method of managing job stress. Above all, it is very important to know the causes of stress and how to proffer lasting solution to
15
 
it. Stress management is important to healthy functioning or organizations or educational system as it seeks to increases productivity since one can clearly focus on tasks better memory, improved immune system and better blood pressure. In Nigeria, job stress is not being given the attention it deserves and so very little has been done as far as assessing the role of stress on job performance in our educational system as well as other organizations is concern.

Dunham and Varma (2000) suggested that, stress can be reduced by developing new skills or by diverting attention through humour physical activity. To cope under difficult conditions, teachers require both organization and personal support, including training in interpersonal problem solving and skills to deal with stress.

Lazarus and Folkmam (1994) in Robert and Jessica (2006) stated that, continual physical and mental adaptation are required to cope satisfactorily with demanding situations. Poor coping mechanisms have long been identified as a primary cause of stress (Head 1996; Montgomery & Rupp, 2005). Good coping skills include modifying thought process, learning
16
 
problem focused strategies (such as new skills in addressing stress) and emotion focused strategies (releasing pent up feelings through exercises, Talking and meditation (Admiral, Korthagen & Wubbels, 2000).

Fleur (2010) identified stress as a part of life for most people and cannot be eliminated completely, but it can be managed by a number of natural methods. Some of these natural ways of controlling stress include:

1.  Exercise: exercise will improve overall health and give one a sense of will being by the release of endorphins, thus boosting confidence and lowering stress levels. Regular exercise can also decrease the production of stress hormones and there fore help to better manage stressful situations. Reducing stress through exercise can give one a sense of well being and confidence. The more stress is reduced; the easier it becomes to cope with and eliminate stress.

2.  Relaxation: learning relaxation techniques will help to relax both mind and body, which is essential in the quest for better stress management. Relaxation can lower heart rate and blood pressure and increase blood flow to organs and muscles,
17
 
allowing an individual to feel more in control of a situation. A visit to a professional to learn relaxation techniques may be necessary, since relaxing can be surprisingly difficult for someone who is always tense and stressed. Exercise and Relaxation should be a regular just don’t have time to go to the gym to exercise or the time to found quite place in order to relax. What they fail is less stressed and probably more productive in the long run. Most companies give their staff a lunch break uses it, not to work but to exercise and relax.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study is to cover all secondary school teachers in Tambuwal local government of Sokoto state. The study is also limited to examine job stress among the teachers. Amongst these secondary schools, five secondary schools are going to be selected for the study.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

1.  Stress: Stress can be defines as the body’s reaction to a

change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response.



18
 
2.  Job Stress: Job stress is defined as the perception of a discrepancy between environmental demand (stressors) and individual capacities to fill these demands (Topper, 2007, 2003; Varca, 1999).

3.  Burnout: Burnout is the feeling of physical and emotional exhaustion due to stress from working with people under difficult demanding conditions.

4.  Stressor: Is a physical, psychological or social forces that puts real pressure or perceived demands on the body, emotions, minds or spirit of an individual. (Kyriacou, 2007).



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