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1.1 Background of the study
The psychology of individual differences originated in attempts to predict scholastic performance. Binet and Simon’s (1916) work showed that children’s individual cognitive capacities explained variability in educational performance and, in doing so, laid the foundations for extensive research into intelligence and intelligence testing (Neisser et al., 1996). Theoretical debate focused on the psychological nature of intelligence, and applied research explored how differences in intelligences can be most usefully assessed (e.g., Carpenter, Just, & Shell, 1990; Gardner, 1983; Spearman, 1927). Subsequent research has identified a variety of individual differences that predict scholastic performance and prompted construction of a wide range of assessment instruments. Yet this diverse literature has not clarified how and to what extent separate measures of academic potential are related. Greater conceptual and methodological integration would help focus future research questions and facilitate optimal assessment of students’ academic potential. In order to achieve this objective we reviewed 13 years of research into correlates of tertiary-level academic performance, where “tertiary-level” refers to postsecondary, undergraduate university, or college education. We investigated (a) which individual differences are associated with better performance, (b) how strong these associations are, and (c) whether a parsimonious evidence-based, additive model of predictors can be constructed. Distinct strands of evidence indicate that predictions of academic performance may be more accurate if they are based on assessment of a variety of individual differences, not just of past achievement and cognitive capacity. First, in tertiary education, student selection procedures reduce variation in intelligence scores, especially at selective institutions (Furnham, Chamorro-Premuzic, & McDougall, 2002). Consequently, at this level, factors others than intelligence may be critical to accurate prediction of performance. Second, and more generally, research has identified a variety of non-intellective factors associated with academic performance. For example, Ackerman and Heggestad (1997) provided an informative analysis of relationships between intelligence, personality, and interests; Poropat (2009) demonstrated that academic performance is associated with five-factor personality traits. The latter review showed that the relation between conscientiousness and academic performance was largely independent of intelligence and that when academic performance at secondary level (i.e., high school) was controlled, conscientiousness added as much to the prediction of tertiary academic performance as did intelligence. Less stable tendencies including motivation, self-regulatory learning strategies, and learning styles have also been found to predict academic performance, controlling for the effects of intelligence and personality (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic, & Furnham, 2008; for a review, see Robbins et al., 2004). In addition, traditional tests of cognitive ability have limitations. Following the construction of the Stanford–Binet intelligence test (Terman, 1916), the Scholastic Aptitude Test was developed in 1925. This test is now referred to as the SAT and is the most widely used, standardized, college admissions test in North America (Everson, 2002). Yet, doubts have been raised regarding cultural and socioeconomic biases in the SAT and, in a more recent test of academic reasoning, the ACT (e.g., Zwick, 2004). In combination, these findings suggest that development of comprehensive, accurate, predictive models of academic performance necessitates a broader representation of student capacities and tendencies. We aimed to provide a foundation for such work by presenting an integrative overview of the evidence supporting a wide range of predictors of tertiary educational performance. Our research focused on individual differences that have the potential to enhance the prediction of academic performance over and above levels achieved by traditional measures of intelligence or cognitive capacity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The challenges emanate from psychological disorder is very fetal to the academic life of every students irrespective of the student intelligent quotient. Research has shown that most student who are intelligent tend not to do well in examination and other academic work as a result of psychological trauma. This led to serious challenge as any psychological disorder has an adverse effect on the central nervous system and the medullar oblongata. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to diffuse the effect of psychological dysfunction on student’s academic performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the is to analyze the psychological dysfunction on student’s academic performance; but for the successful completion of the st
Study the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective:
i) To ascertain the effect of psychological dysfunction on student academic performance
ii) To investigate the role of parent in combating psychological dysfunction
iii) To investigate the relationship between student academic performance and psychological dysfunction
iv) To determine the impact of psychological dysfunction on student academic and social well being.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study the following research hypotheses are formulated by the researcher;
H0: psychological dysfunction does not have any significant effect on student’s academic performance.
H1: psychological dysfunction does have a significant effect on student’s academic performance
H02: The parent does not play any role in combating psychological dysfunction in students
H2: The parent does play a significant role in combating psychological dysfunction in students
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study the findings will be useful to parents and guardian to ensure that their ward get the psychological and emotional balance so as to aid their progress academically. The study will also be useful to the teachers who have the responsibility of guiding and counseling the student if any of them have any psychological challenge. The study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the statistical analysis of psychological dysfunction on students academic performance. In the cause of the study the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study.
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Psychological dysfunction refers to the cessation of purposeful functioning of cognition, emotions or behavior. The comedian Maria Bamford has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which is expressed in cognitive dysfunction.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. It is an academic discipline and a social science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.
1.8 Organization of the study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.
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