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The modern budget system has accompanied the growth of representative government activities. In most countries with the prominent exception of the United States, the budget system was established first at the national level and from there spread to provincial and local government. Budgeting has not developed uniformly among all governments, however nor is it traceable to a common set of influences which has operated in the same fashion in all countries.
Government budgeting is one of the major process by which the use of public resources is planned and controlled to the extent that this is done well, governmental programmes are brought increasing to the service of the citizens enhancing their material and cultural status.
Budget are not merely matters of arithmetic but in a thousand ways go to the root of prosperity of individuals and relations of classes and the strength of kingdoms.
Planning involves first the conceiving of goals and the development of alternative course of action to achieve the goals,. Secondly, it involves the reduction of these alternatives from a very large number to a small number and finally tone approved course of action, the programme. Budgeting probably plays a slight part in the first phase but an increasingly important and decisive part in the second. It facilitates the choice-making process by providing a basis for systematic comparisons among alternatives which take into account their total impacts on both the debit and the credit sides. It thus encourages and provides some of the tools for an increasing degree of precision in the planning process.
Budget is a forecast of expenditures and revenues for a specific period of time usually one year. As a planning document, budget enables businesses, governments, private organizations and households to set priorities and monetary progress towards selected goals. To achieve budgetary objectives, it may be necessary to set aside savings (surplus) or to borrow from outside sources (deficits) Ndan (2007).
The personal or family budget is a financial plan that helps individuals to balance income and expenses. A business budget is generally used as a tool to formulate intelligent decisions on the management and growth of a business venture. The most complicated budgetary process involves a government budget, which is planned for the collection and expenditure of monies needed to carry out the social, military and economic policies of an administration.
Government budget may be federal, state and local governments in Nigeria, the Chief Executive Officers for example, the President, Governor or chairman prepares the budget on the basis of estimates submitted by departments and agencies.
HISTORICAL background OF KADUNA REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY (KRPC)
The decision to construct the third Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) refinery in Kaduna was taken in 1974 along with that of the second NNPC refinery located at Warri. However, it was decided that work would commence on the construction of the third refinery whenever the projection of the consumption of petroleum products justified it. By early 1975, in view of the fuel shortage experience then, the federal government decided that work on the third refinery should be advanced. It was envisaged that the refinery was to be a simple hydro skimming type refinery in order to meet up with the fuel demand then.
Based on the feasibility studies carried out, which took into consideration the consumption of the various petroleum products within the Northern zone, and adequate means of disposal for the surplus products, a crude oil capacity of 42,000 barrels per stream day (BPSD) could be easily justified. Hence, the refinery was designed for a capacity of 60,000 BPSD.
However, this would have led to the production of large quantity of heavy fuel oils. In order to do this, the whole project plan had to be modified so that what, initially was planned to be a simply hydro skimming type refinery developed into integrated refinery. The refinery would now be able to produce wider variety of petroleum products, some of which should be lubricating base oils.
Hence it became necessary to import suitable paraffinic based crude oil from refinery are to include fuels such as liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG), petrol, automotive gas oil, kerosene, fuel oil and sulphur and those from the lubricating oils complex are based oils, asphalts and waves.
The lubricating oil complex of Kaduna refinery is the first of its kind in West Africa and one of the largest in Africa. The consulting firm King Wilkia Son of Hague, Holland in conjunction with NNPC engineers, developed the plan for the refinery. The contract for construction was awarded to Chiroda Chemical Engineering and Construction Company of Yokohoma, Japan in 1977. The project was completed and commissioned in 1980. However, the tubes plants were commissioned in 1983 and 1988 respectively. The initial operation and maintenance carried out by Nigeria staff and expatriates personnel as technical back up. By 1985, Nigeria staff had virtually taken over all the maintenance and operations.
The Kaduna Refinery was commissioned in 1980 with an initial capacity of 100,000 BPSD as the third refinery in the country in order to cope with the tremendous and growing demand for petroleum products. The refinery designed to process both imported petroleum and Nigeria crude oils into fuels and lubes products, was commissioned by Chidoya Chemical, Engineering And Construction Company now Chiyoda Corporation of Japan in December 1986, the design capacity of the fuels plant of the refinery was successfully increased from 50,000 BPSD to 60,000 BPSD, bringing the total refinery instated capacity of 110,000 BPSD.
In March 1988, the 30,000 MT/Yr liner Alkyl Benzene plant under the then petrochemical, sector of NNPC was commissioned. The plant is designed in the wake of the recent commercialization exercise, it was decided that the two plants should merge into a single subsidiary company of NNPC in view of their interdependence, common goal and proximity. The company thus formed, is the Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company Limited (KRPC).
The production department is comprised of the following units:
4. Oil movement and Utilities
The fuels plants of the refinery, made up of twelve (12) process units, is capable of processing 60,000 BPSD of Nigeria crude oil unto various petroleum products namely:
Ø Diesel oil
Ø Fuel oil
While the lubes plant, consisting of eight (8) units has the capacity to process 50,000 BPSD of imported crude oil into lubes base oil. Asphalt and waxes sulphur is also produced from the off gases derived from the imported crude. The lubes plant is designed to process heavy crude oil from Kuwait, Venezuela (Lagomar) or Saudi Arabia (Arabian light crude).
The Arabian Light crude oil is currently being processed, the change over from the lagomar crude, processed since plant inception, to Arabian Light crude oil was in October, 1988 to solve the bottom of the barrel problem. KRPC’s operation is highly dependent on adequate supply of water and power for those utilities. Water is obtained from Kaduna River at the raw water intake facilities located at about 13 kilometers from KRPC installations. The water is chemically treated to meet quality specifications for the various process units and steam generation.
Five steam boilers are installed. Each boiler has team generating capacity of 120 tons/per hour at 42kg/cm2 pressure power is also generated internally from four installed steam-driven turbo generating sets. Each sets is capable of producing 14 mega watts of electric power facilities also exist for treating gaseous and liquid effluents and wastes before their disposal into the environment. Such effluents are critically monitored to avoid environmental pollution. The operations of the refinery units are fully Nigerianized while expatriate back-up services are partially utilized in (the newly commissioned lab plant).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite increase in budget in the country, many problems, manifest in different forms in most organizations. Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company KRPC is not an exception.
Most of the problems connection with budget is how to apply it is a non-profit organization where services rendered cannot be measured quantitatively and similarly experience over the years showed that the implementation of budgets in the country has always been met with delays due to frequent inflation in the prices of goods and services.
Running of public sector like KRPC can be done efficiently with a well articulated policy projection and estimation based on accurate data and clear goals and objectives, but the most disturbed problems always is how to translate economic policies or plans into reality, if our budgets always characterized by absence of slack variables i.e giving room for any adjustments in the event of rainy days when our expenditure outweighs the estimate cost. However, there is a concern that the KRPC to some extent has failed to live up to expectation and solely depends on what the NNPC can do.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aims of this study is to evaluate budgeting and its impacts in the management of KRPC Kaduna resources.
While the study in the other hand has the following stated objectives:
i. To examine effects of efficient budgeting in KRPC Kaduna
ii. To assess the importance of introducing other methods of budgeting in KRPC
iii. Establish whether poor funding is a continuous problem in KRPC and to suggest solutions.
iv. To suggest to the management the need to revisit the generation of funds internally from the facilities.
v. to proffer solutions or suggestions on how to ameliorate these problems.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is known fact that no economy can truly progress without considering its resources of income and expenditure through good budgeting to international, national, organizational, household and individual cannot be over emphasized.
This work has tremendous importance to stakeholders i.e the management and staff of KRPC Kaduna because it will expose the problems highlighted above and proffer possible solutions where necessary.
This work is also significance to academic environment because it will add the existing literature on the topic, thus, pave way or serve as a secondary source of data to who so ever want to carry out a research on the same topic.
To Nigerians, the work will expose the problem of inadequate finding in KRPC which hitherto, hampered steady supply of petroleum products and its marketing in the country through loops and holes its created in the organizations.
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