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1.0    Background of the Study

Technical colleges are the institutions established by government to equip individuals with skills in various occupations. Okoro (2006) stated that technical colleges are regarded as the principal vocational institutions in Nigeria that give full vocational training intended to prepare students for entry into various occupations as artisans and craftsmen. Alade, Ayodele and Ayodele (2010) described technical colleges as institutions where students are trained to acquire relevant knowledge and skills indifferent occupations for employment in the world of work. They give full vocational training intended to prepare individuals for entry into various occupations. Technical colleges are the post primary schools where students are trained to acquire relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes in a chosen occupation or trade at craft level Bakare (2012). One of such trades is Electrical/Electronic.

Electrical/electronic is a technical trade offered in technical colleges for the purpose of equipping students with basic knowledge of Electricity.

Electrical/electronic was incorporated in to the curriculum of technical colleges in Nigeria in order to expose students to various skills. National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) (2004) stated that the goal of Electrical/electronic in technical colleges is to produce competent Electrical/electronic technicians who can diagnose and carry out repair and maintenance on all kinds of Electrical/electronic sets. Federal Government of Nigeria (FCN) (2004) described Electrical/Electronics one of the trades taught at the craft and advanced craft levels of technical colleges in Nigeria. The components of this trade include industrial installation, cable jointing, basic electricity, electronic devices, radio communication and television electronics.

Akin sehinde (1991)explained that the teaching of Electrical/electronic by teachers in technical colleges serves as a medium through which students learn necessary electronic principles and related practical skills as would enable them develop competencies in diagnosing faults and effecting repairs in Electrical/electronic sets as well as similar electronic and telecommunication equipment. Teachers of Electrical/electronic are individuals who have been trained pedagogically and technically to teach skills, knowledge and techniques in Electrical/electronic trade to students under their control. Students are expected to acquirenecessary skills and knowledge in order to diagnose, maintain and repair different forms of electronics. Effiong (2006) stated that Electrical/electronic students are expected to perform such other functions like designing of simple basic electronic circuits, reading and interpreting of schematic diagrams and dismantling and assembling of some Electrical/electronic gadgets.

Technical skills are the skills required to accomplish a specific task. Abinu (2012) described technical skills as the knowledge and skills, specific to a particular occupation or group of occupations. The technical skill implies an understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity, particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures, or techniques; it involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline (Arul, 2012). Technical skills in Electrical/electronic include electronic fault diagnosis and repair skills. Fatokun and Yalams (2007) explained that electronics fault diagnosis and repair skills is the basis of modern Electrical/electronic maintenance and servicing trade and has found wide applications in every branch of Electrical/electronic systems such as electric motor, iron, fan, transmission of electricity, radio receiver, cassette players, television receivers, electronic piano, calculators, computers, microwave ovens and public address system. Those with technical skills are often referred to as technicians in their chosen field. It is the major skill required to perform technical tasks. Without technical skills, the objective of an enterprise may be difficult to accomplish byan entrepreneur. Managerial skills are needed for effective management of an enterprise. Managerial skills are the tactics for effective management of human and materials inputs in order to account for maximum output in an organization. According to Abiodun and Ajayi (2002), managerial skills are the type of skills required by individual entrepreneur to                                                                                                                                                                                                      formulate and execute policies of an enterprise which constitute management.

The students after graduation are also called craftsmen. They are expected to possess necessary skills in their areas of specialization in order to embark be self-employed.

Entrepreneurial skill is the ability to choose appropriate business to raise their economic status and enhance success in business. Entrepreneurial skills in the view of Nwaokolo (1993) are the ideas and management abilities necessary for personal self-reliance of individuals in the society. Jeroen (2003) described entrepreneurial skills as the abilities needed for autonomy and independence, taking initiative, looking for possibilities to carry out business, self-confidence and endurance in any business opportunity. Entrepreneurial skills are the abilities to have self-belief and boldness for internal management and external advancement of the firm in all aspects (Salgadobanda, 2005). Entrepreneurial skills enable individuals to exploit an idea and create an enterprise not only for personal gain but also for social and development gains. Oko (2012) stated that entrepreneurial skills include technical, managerial, financial, marketing and communication skills.

Nwachuchkwu (2008) described management as the coordination of all resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attaining organization objectives. Managerial skills enable entrepreneurs to run successful enterprises. Financial management skills enhance individual’s ability to deal with tasks such as, unit budget preparation and control, cost containment, cost benefit analysis and productivity measures (Chase, 1994). These skills are important for unit heads. Financial management skills as explained by Richard, Gary and Larry (2001), enable one to understand the financial matter of an organization. It involves where to find capital, how to secure it, how to plan cash flow, how to keep effective financial and how to foresee future financial needs.

Marketing skills are the skills required to market goods and services produced by an enterprise. Osinem (2008) explained marketing skills as the skills which an individual acquires and which enables him keep a job. Richard, Gary and Larry (1991) said that marketing involves identifying relevant markets accurately; communicate effectively with potential customers, users, or donors; and maintaining a sensitively to the marketing place. Osuala (1993) identified some marketing skills to include: Being familiar with various aspects of sales and sale techniques, determining the cost of advertisement, determining the storage facilities, and determining the extent of the market. In the opinions of Crum and Okwo (1993), an entrepreneur must master some marketing skills for success. They equally recognized entrepreneurship skills to include some abilities as the use of banking facilities for fast growth and development of a business, preparation and interpretation of pay roll of employees within an organization and computation of trade and cash discount.

Communication skills are the knowledge and ability required by individuals to transfer information from one place to another. These skills involved written, oral or visual and non-verbal. Communication skills enable one to create sound awareness about the products of an enterprise. Communication skills are the ability to express oneself and understand others so that ideas can be shared. These skills enable individuals to convey information so that it is received and understood. Communication skills in the opinion of Richard, Gary and Larry (1991) are the skills for entrepreneurs to convince others that their ideas are worthy of support. The authors stated further that entrepreneurs need to explain to others what their jobs and what the goals of the ventures are in order to motivate these people to work effectively. Good communication skills, in terms of oral and written are essential for successful enterprise. According to Rao (2007), communication skills are the abilities to transfer one’s thought, ideas and information from the sender to the receiver with the latter begin understood the same effectively and efficiently. Communication skill is very important for students in Electrical/Electronic fault diagnoses and repair to establish small and medium scale enterprises. It will enable students to communicate business transactions fluently with their customers.

Entrepreneurial opportunities in electrical/electronic trade include:

·       Repairs of Radio, Television and office equipment.

·       Winding of electrical machines.

·       Domestic Installation.

·       Industrial installation and Maintenance.

·       Satellite installations.

·       Transformer Installation.

Evaluation is a systematic process of describing object, things or events in both quantitative and qualitative terms. It entails value judgment in which it tries to find out the worth of something so as to able to take decision on the things. The process of evaluation involves testing, measurement, and assessment. Thus in its broad use it involves both quantitative and qualitative description of behaviors and value judgment.

There are two types of evaluation namely formative evaluation and summative evaluation.

Formative Evaluation: This is the type of evaluation carried out while a programme is being developed or implemented. It helps to identify some problems that might be encountered in the programme. It provides feedback that can be used in the improvement of the programme. Since the formative evaluation is undertaken while the programme is being develop or implemented, it is possible to use the data collected from formative evaluation to improve the particular programme.

Summative Evaluation: Summative evaluation is concerned with how effective a programme is. It helps to determine the adequacy or otherwise of a given programme. As a result, it is usually undertaken at the end of a programme. The result of summative evaluation is used to determine whether a programme will continue or not.

The following are importance of evaluation to an entrepreneurial graduate of electrical/electronic students of Technical colleges in Kaduna state.

i.          It increases the graduate’s efficiency of organizing small scale             businesses.

ii.        It reduces business related risks.

iii.       Facilitates proper Coordination.

iv.       It enables the graduates to give the right directions to             entrepreneurial opportunities.

v.         It encourages creativity and new innovations to the entrepreneurial    graduates.

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