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Today, poor infrastructural facilities are identified as a problem. It is important to know that most of the poor people live in the rural areas including Khana Local Government Area which is characterized by lack or poor infrastructural facilities such as electricity and good road, portable drinking water, good communication system, health centres, leisure parks and so on. The absence of the facilities makes life difficult, and hard to get portable drinking water, good communication system, health centres, leisure parks and so on. The absence of the facilities makes life miserable and unattractive in rural areas.
This study is in line to find out the effects of poor infrastructural facilities on socioeconomic development and based on our analysis and findings in the study we conclude that rural infrastructure is central to social development. Improved infrastructure not only expands opportunities for growth but also help ensure that such growth is more diffused and equitable. Many developing countries, especially in Africa, still have woefully inadequate levels of rural infrastructure, and this is a major constraint to their socio-economic development.
1.1 Background of the Study
Globally the presence of infrastructure measures a country’s greatness and level of development. Growth is positively affected by the stock of infrastructure assets of all the development that has taken place in Nigeria since political independence, perhaps none has been more striking and indeed more fascinating than that in the area of infrastructures process of Nigeria. In the view, it beat observers imagination that decades after Nigeria self rule or political freedom from Britain, the government and its people still battle with twin problems of finding infrastructural development and imminent decay that set in soon after they are commissioned for use. In most countries of the world especially the less developed countries, there exist varying degree of economic inequalities while the urban area benefit and indeed show the presence of political administration, infrastructural facilities, high rate of poverty, ignorance, diseases, huger arising from economic neglect rural urban migration. There is no gain saying that the rural areas have enough infrastructural facilities. Infrastructures are basic essential, service that should be put in a place to enable development to occur. Socio-economic development can be facilitated and accelerated at all levels in Nigeria by the presence of social and economic infrastructures. The neglect of socio-economic development had led the country to heart acting poverty which has increased poverty rate. According to Busari Ayansola (2012), if socio-economic infrastructures are not in place, development will be very difficult and infant can liken a very scarce commodity that can only be secured at a very high price and cost. The development of rural areas entails adequate provision of infrastructure. Because higher productivity and competitiveness requires higher level of infrastructural provision, development is driven by infrastructural provision, for eradication of problems of poverty, frustration, ignorance, diseases, crimes and rural urban migration which dominates rural areas. Successive administrations have in one way or the other made some concerted effort towards infrastructural development in the rural areas to solve the domestic socio-economic problems which have reflected in the main objectives of the rural development in Nigeria. It is clear that infrastructural development cannot be neglected in the socio-economic development of Khana Local Government Area. To prove the standard of living and it improve on their facilities. Angaye (1995), states that development should be seen as improvement in the mental, physical, spiritual materials and more qualities of life, resulting from real income provision of food, shelter, education and reduction of poverty. Base on the fact that infrastructure has developed a greater quantum in development of the nation, the research developed interest in ascertaining the effects of poor infrastructural facilities on the socio-economic development of Khana Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today, poor infrastructural facilities are identified as a problem. It is important to know that most of the poor people live in the rural areas including Khana Local Government Area which is characterized by lack or poor infrastructural facilities such as electricity and good road, portable drinking water, good communication system, health centres, leisure parks and so on. The absence of the facilities makes life difficult, and hard to get portable drinking water, good communication system, health centres, leisure parks and so on. The absence of the facilities makes life miserable and unattractive in rural areas. There is massive rural-urban migration, mass death and increased diseases of kind because of non – provision of facilities and the consequences is low productivity and therefore hinders socio-economic development. Due to lack of transportation and means of communication, sources of income like weaving of mat, fishing, carving and tools making, taping, poultry and small scale business which if pursued in the earnest could form the corner stone of mini-industries in the rural areas have suffered. The craft trades and farming are left in the hand of the old and weak who lacks the capacity skills and energy to turn them into the resource revenue earning. Poor Health Centres, leisure parks has also increased mortality rate, depression, poor health, emotional imbalance which reduces life span. Due to poor infrastructural, development have affected other sectors of Nigeria economics like political, medical, education and agricultural sector. There are no enough infrastructural facilities in Khana Local Government Area, no more significant effort has been made by Government, voluntary agencies and concerned citizens to provide much needed infrastructure in most rural area in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study seeks to determine the effect of poor infrastructural facilities on socio-economic development of Khana Local Government Area. In pursuant to this goal, the specific objectives of this study are to determine.
1. The role infrastructural facilities play on the socio-economic development.
2. The effort by the government in the provision of infrastructural facilities in Khana Local Government Area.
3. The effects of poor infrastructural facilities on the socio-economic development of Khana Local Government Area.
1.4 Research Questions
There are questions raised by the researcher expecting the answers to such questions which lead to the solution of the research study (Uwazie, 2008), based on the above view, this study raised the following research question to guide the study.
What are the infrastructural facilities needed for the socio-development of Khana Local Government Area?
What are the effects of poor infrastructural facilities of Khana Local Government Area?
What is the role of infrastructural facilities in socio-economic development of Khana Local Government Area?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The importance of the research study cannot be overemphasized. Hence the study is carried out in other than the result of it will serve as reference point to the future researchers who can have access to it.
It will also avail accessible sociologist, rural planners Non Governmental organization, opportunity of appreciating the likely enormous contributions of rural area to the overall development of the society.
The study will enable us know the need (importance) of infrastructural facilities in the socio-economic life of our people especially Khana Local Government Area.
The study will also create awareness of the effects as a result of poor facilities in Khana Local Government Area.
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study covered Khana Local Government Area in Rivers State and focus on the effect of poor infrastructural facilities on socio-economic development of Khana Local Government Area. It content, the work of limited to poor infrastructural facilities in the rural areas, particularly in Khana Local Government Area. It is a view of the consequences of non availability of infrastructural facilities in the Local Government Area that motivated the researcher to develop interest in this research topic.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Rural: According to the united nation organsation (UNO) standard refers to rural settlement as an area with less than 20,000 population. Rural settlements engage on primary activities such as farming, hunting, fishing, weaving, blacksmithing and other informal occupations.
Housing: Housing connotes more than shelter. It moans the condition under which people carry out their daily living in their houses and in their neighbouhoods. It also means the general environment as well as the buildings (Hopkins, 1970). This view is also shared by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to (Salau 1981). Housing is more than the physical structure, but includes all necessary services, facilities, equipments and devices needed or desired for the physical, mental health and social well-being of the family and individuals.
Infrastructure: According to WHO (2000) define infrastructure as necessary services, facilities, equipments and devices needed or desired for the physical, mental, health and social well-being of the family and individual. These include sewages, sanitation, roads electricity, drainage, waste disposal and other public transportation systems.
Empowerment: is essentially a political concept that means more equitable sharing (or redistribution) of power and resources with those who previously lacked power. It also refers to any activity that leads to increased access and control over resources and the acquisition of new skills and confidence so that people are enabled to initiate action on their own behalf and acquire leadership is an empowering activity.
Development: Refers to the carrying out of any building, engineering, mining or other operations in, on, over or under any land on the making of any environ- mentally significant change in the use of any land or demolition of buildings including the falling of trees etc. (Obialo 1999).
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