THE DETERMINANT OF SAVINGS IN NIGERIA (1985-2011)

THE DETERMINANT OF SAVINGS IN NIGERIA (1985-2011)

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ABSTRACT

The term savings refers to the part of income immediately spent or consumed but reserved for futureconsumption, investment or unforeseen contingencies. This study examines the determinants of savings in Nigeria between 1985-2011, which will enable us to proffer solution for the improvement of savings in the economy, since it is an important component of the economic development of any country. The method of analysis used in testing the hypothesis are coefficient of multiple determination {R2}, T –test,F-statistics. Data for the study was obtained from the central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin, the major findings was that per capita disposable income{pdy} has a positive and significant impact on aggregate savings in Nigeria. Based on the findings, some recommendations of policy and suggestions have been made.

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CHAPTER ONE

1:1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Capital formation is an important factor of an economy growth. For a country like Nigeria to attain economic growth, serious effort should be geared towards capital formation by encouraging savings.

The financial institution markets, regulators and instrument interact within an economy to provide financial services such as foreign exchange transaction, financial intermediation and resources mobilization and allocation.

The financial system in Nigeria can be categorized into two, the formal (organized) and informal (unorganized) financial system. The formal financial system is categorized into capital and money market institutions and these comprises of the banks and non banks financial institution, while the informal sector is made up of the local money lenders (Esusu), the thrifts and savings associations, merchants, shopkeeper or traders, friends and relatives etc. here the system is poorly developed, limited economic information, defective system of accounting and not integrated into the formal financial system. But it is very important and plays a major role in the Nigerian financial system.

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Miracle and Cohen (1980) noted that a great bulk of the African population makes little or no use of formal saving and lending institutions, because they offer relatively low returns, savers are reluctant to use formal institutions.

The crucial role played by the financial system in the economic development of an economy was recognized by Gold Smith (1955), Cameron (1967), McKinnon (1973), and Shaw (1973), they demonstrated that the financial sector could be a catalyst of economic growth if it is well developed and healthy. Over the past decades, the declining rends in saving rates in Nigeria have been of great concern to the policy makers and researchers. This is due to the critical importance of savings for the maintenance of strong and sustainable growth in the world economy especially in Nigeria. A sound, developed, healthy and reliable financial system relate to saving mobilization efficient financial intermediaries roles, is first to reduce hoarding and help spread the risk between household and firms.

Secondly, hey create liquidity in the economy by borrowing short term and lending long term loan. Thirdly disseminate information between ultimate lenders and ultimate borrowers there by mobilizing savings from surplus units and channeling them to deficit units through the help of financial techniques, instruments, and institution. Fourth, lower interest rate by bringing about stability in capital market. Fifth, the intermediaries promote development in the financial transaction. Gibson and Isiaka Lobos (1994). The Nigeria financial system

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comprises he regulatory/supervisory authorities, bank and non bank financial institution.

As at the end of 2007, the system comprised of the regulatory/supervisory authority. The Central bank of Nigeria (CBN), the Nature Insurance Commission (NAICOM), the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC). The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and finally the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN). The CBN is the principal regulator and supervisor in the money market followed by deposit money banks (DMBS), Discount Houses, the people bank of Nigeria and Community Banks. The CBN exclusively regulates the activities of the finance companies and promotes the establishment or specialized or development financial institution.

The security and exchange commission (SEC) is the apex regulatory authority in the capital market. The Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) is a self regulatory or user regulatory institution. The issuing house, registrars and stock brokers, who also interact with the money market, complete the chain the capital the NAICOM is the regulatory authority in the insurance industry while FMBN regulates mortgage finance activities in Nigeria.

Saving refers to the part of income not immediately spent or consumed but reserved for future consumption, investment or unforeseen contingencies, it is considered as an indispensable weapon for economic growth and development. Its

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role is reflected in capital formation through increase in capital stock and the impact its makes on the capacity to generate more and higher income.

Savings can also be known as a sacrifice of current consumption that provides for the accumulation of capital, which in turn, provides additional output that can potentially be used for consumption in the future(GERSOVIZ 1988).in other words savings is the different between current earnings and consumption. We can also define savings as he deposit and saving ability acquired by the organized financial institution including bank and non banking financial intermediaries or it is described as a financial accumulated by the public, both government and private agents in the organized financial channels. These financial assets include savings and time deposit in the banking institution provident funds, insurance premium stocks and bonds etc.the intermediation process involves moving funds from surplus sectors of the economy to deficits sector units(Nnann and Englama 2004).To expand financial savings involves shifting of fund from the personal and household sector to the business or corporate sector which in turn leads to greater investment, income growth, employment and capital formation, which cannot be achieved without increasing the rate of savings.

Nigerians savings still falls below the requirement of its financial system due to low per capital income, under investment in productive instruments, and investment in unproductive channels e.g. Glod, jewel, income inequalities and

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demonstration effects, etc.to remedy this problem depend on the level of development of the financial sector mentioned above as well as the saving habit of the citizens. The availability of investible funds can be a starting point for all investment. In the economy which will eventually translate to economic growth and development (Uremadu 2006).

The relationship among savings, investment and growth has historically been very close, hence the unsatisfactory growth perfo


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