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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Government, all over the world needs tax to fund and control their economic activities and one of source of revenue is taxation. Taxation can be variously defined. Fundamentally however, it is a compulsory levy on income since the decision to pay tax is not that of the tax payers. According to Amaechina (1998:9), “taxation has been defined as a levy which a government imposes on the income of the citizens or corporation in a state for which the government gives no direct benefit to the taxpayer” or “a non-punitive but yet a compulsory levy by government on the properties and income of individual and corporation”. The government cannot build a school or a hospital personally for somebody because he has paid his taxes, but the money realized is used to finance general government expenditures.
The existence of taxation in Nigeria is linked with the era of the colonial master in the early 20th century. The introduction becomes necessary as a result of the enormous tasks facing the government.
In Nigeria, tax system has undergone significant changes in recent times. The tax laws are being reviewed with the aim of repelling of obsolete provision and simplifying the main ones. Under current Nigeria law, taxation is enforced by the tiers of government that is local, state and federal government.
The tasks have to do with how government can control its economic activities and how government can achieve the desired level of price inflation and deflation and how to control supply of money.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The project titled effectiveness of taxation as an instrument for control of money in circulation is aimed at determining the nature of taxation and how it can be used to control the supply of money and regulate the economic activities in our country.
It is obvious that Nigeria being one of the developing nations of the world is seriously faced with series of problems which includes;
i. The extent in which the tax system has been inactive or ineffective in preventing or combating inflation.
ii. The probable effects of a rapid rise in prices on revenues and expenditure. iii. The vicious circles of poverty (i.e. the gap between the rich and poor in too wide).
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To critically examine the reasons for taxation as an instrument of money control and its effects on government and its citizens, and its general effects on the Nigeria economy with regards to political, social and economic development of our country.
In this case government has to meet the desired standard of living and cost of living of the citizens and adopt a suitable level of economy to boast investors and improve natural output.
For the purpose of this study, the following objectives are expected to be attained:
i. To determine how tax system can be effective in preventing and combating inflation.
ii. To ascertain the extent on which revenue and expenditure are probable effects of a rapid rise in prices.
iii. To determine and to use tax system to breach the vicious circles of poverty on our country.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the objective highlighted above, the following research questions were formulated as follows:
i. In what ways can tax be used to effectively prevent or/and combat inflation?
ii. The effectiveness of rapid rises in prices on revenues and expenditure iii. The effect of vicious circles of poverty in Nigeria economy.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HI: The extent to which tax system is inactive and ineffective in preventing and combating inflation.
HO: The extent to which tax system is not inactive and ineffective in preventing and combating inflation.
HI: There is significant effect of a rapid rises in prices on revenues and expenditure.
HO: There is no significant effect of a rapid rises in prices on revenue and expenditure.
HI: There is significant effect on tax system and supply of money with the vicious circles of poverty.
HO: There is no significant effect on tax system and the supply of money with the vicious circles of poverty.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is important in such that:
i. The outcome of this study would enhance the ability of the students offering course in taxation to understand the subject properly and help the researcher to obtain the award of Master Decree in Accountancy.
ii. The study would serve as an information bank for future research in the area of taxation.
iii. The findings of this research would help government officials to utilize taxation in achieving desired goals.
iv. It shall also serve as an eye opener to government of the present time that taxation can be used as economic tool for the control of money in circulation in order to avoid inflation, control high cost of living and low standard of
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This topic, the effectiveness of taxation as an instrument for control of money in circulation should been expected to cover Nigeria (i.e. Thirty six (36) states and the FCT) but decided to limit it to some states of the federation, since the economy of every state of the federation is the same and the same tax Act is applied throughout the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Due to financial handicap, distance (Landmass) and the constraints and the attitude of the respondents, most of them were either not available or incorrectly completed the questionnaire given to them. The irrational behavior of human beings who react differently as same were willing to give the needed information, other were reluctant or refused to co-operate even under several persuasion.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some technical term, which features in this work are defined to enhance letter understanding of the research work.
Taxation: Taxation refers to compulsory levy imposed on private,
individual, institutions or groups by the government.
Tax: Tax is the money paid by the citizens, according to their
income, value of goods purchased etc to the government for public purposes.
Financial Handicap: This means shortage of money for an activity. Tax Payer: People, group of people or companies that pays tax.
Vicious Circle: It is a situation in which one problem leads to
another, which then makes the first one worse.
Inflation: This is when there are to much money in circulation.
Anyawuokoro M. (1999). Theory and Policy of Money and Banking: Hosanna Publication, Enugu. 1st Edition.
Jude, C.N. (2003). Private Sector and Generation of Tax Revenue, Nigeria Certified National Accountant Vol. 111.
Okokwo, I. E. (1994). Nigeria Personal Income Tax (Theory and Practice) Global Rays Academic Publishers Ltd, Enugu.
Okorie, O. (2005): Understanding the Principle and Personal Income Tax, Enugu. Survey Enterprises 2nd Edition.
Okpe, I.I. (1998) Personal Income Tax of Nigeria. Enugu New Generation Book.
Ola, C. S. (2001) A Guide to Accountancy and Taxation Law of Press Limited, Ibadan.
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