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Title page - - - - - - - - - - i

Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii



Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - v

Tables of contents - - - - - - - - - vi

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vii


1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - - - 3

1.3 Objectives of the study - - - - - - - - 5

1.4 Research hypothesis - - - - - - - 6

1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - - - - 7

1.6 Scope and limitation of the study - - - - - - - 7

1.7 Organization of the study - - - - - - 8


2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 10

2.1 Conceptual issues - - - - - - - 10

2.2 Indicators of Poverty - - - - - - - - 14

2.3 Incidence of poverty in Nigeria - - - - - - 17

2.4 Theoretical Review - - - - - 19

2.4.1 Need theory - - - - - - - - 19

2.4.2 Individualistic Theory - - - - 23

2.4.3 The culture of poverty - - - - - 24

2.4.4 Situational theory of poverty - - - - 28

2.4.5 Structural and/or Marxian theory of poverty - - - 29

2.5 Empirical Review--------------------------31

2.6 An overview of selected poverty eradication programmes in Nigeria---------------------35

2.7 National Poverty Eradication Programme---------------------------41

2.8 Constraints of poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria-----------------44


3.0 Introduction - - - - - 47

3.1 Research design - - - - - - - - - 47

3.2 Sampling techniques - - - - - - - - 48

3.3 Method of data collection- - - - - - - - 48

3.4 Population of the study - - - - - - - - 49

3.5 Sample size - - - - 50

3.6 Validity and reliability of the research instruments - - - - - - - 51

3.7 Instrument and measurement - - - - - - - - 51

3.8 Method of data analysis---------------------52


4.1 Data presentation and analysis - - - - - - - - - 54

4.2 Testing of hypothesis - - - - - - - - 67

4.3 Discussion of results - - - - 70


5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - 72

5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 73

5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - - - 75

References - - - - - - - - - 77

Appendix ----------------82




















The study investigated the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) among rural population in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to investigate the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) on poverty reduction in the area among others. A sample size of 120 was adopted for the study. The respondents were selected using random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. These techniques were used in order to reduce cost and time in getting information. The data used in this study were primary data and were obtained through questionnaires. The statistical technique used in analysing the data in this study was the chi-square (χ2)  tests, table of values were also used. The findings of this research work shows that NAPEP has not impact on poverty eradication in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Besides, all poverty indicators have like household income, unemployment and so on, continue to manifest with the living conditions of majority of residents of Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, due to lack of involvement of stakeholders and beneficiaries especially at the design stages of poverty alleviation programmes affected the success of the programmes grossly.  In addition, thefindings showed that poverty has serious setback on the development of the study area and by extensionrural areas of Nigeria. Recommendations were made for policy makers and implementers to empowerrural areas to enhance their development.












1.1     Background of the Study

One of the major issues in development is how to tackle rural poverty. The constraints to developing rural areas as well as the problems of this critical sector have come to loom very large. Rural areas present problems that are paradoxical of its natural resource endowment. Rural communities are marginalized in terms of most basic elements of development. The inhabitants tend to live at the margin of existence and opportunities as most rural communities lack portable water, electricity, health care, educational and recreational facilities and motorable roads.

Attempts to put rural areas on the course of development in Nigeria over the past decades have not yielded much impact. Conditions have continued to worsen and poverty has become a major issue in the rural areas in spite of their potentials. A common thread that runs through the various perceptions of “poverty” connotes material and non-material deprivation and lack of control over resources to meet essential needs. If the incidence of poverty runs counter to the development aspiration, its alleviation or eradication becomes a worth-while endeavor in any socio-economic system irrespective of ideology and structural/organizational nomenclature. Poverty alleviation has become a prime focus of economic policy, policy research, analysis and development management. The need becomes particularly compelling in developing countries where poverty is most dehumanizing (Obadan et al., 2003).

Therefore a major concern to governments, multilateral institutions and policy makers in different countries is to identify appropriate strategy for poverty alleviation in the rural areas so as to bring about rural development.

Since then a number of government programmes have been put in place to improve basic services, infrastructure and housing facilities for the rural population, extending access to credit farm inputs, and creating employment. Such programmes included specific multi-sector programmes (water and sanitation, environment etc) as well as sector-specific programmes in agriculture, health, education, transport, housing, finance, industry/ manufacturing and nutrition. All these programmes put together are meant to provide a catalytic impetus for the take-off and subsequent advancement of the rural areas towards: linking them to national and international economic systems; increasing rural household income; providing basic socio-economic and physical infrastructure; efficient resource allocation to shift attention and interest of the private sector towards investment in rural areas to enhance rural development; and enhancing rural welfare.

The alarming indicators of poverty in Nigeria, particularly in rural areas prompted the Obasanjo administration to review the existing poverty alleviation schemes with a view to harmonizing them and improving on them. To facilitate this need, all poverty eradication institutions and programmes were streamlined and rationalized and a comprehensive structure for coordinating and monitoring the activities of the core poverty eradication ministries and agencies was established. This structure as approved by the Federal Executive Council (FEC) is the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) established since 2001.


1.2     Statement of the Problem     

The level of poverty in Nigeria today is quite disturbing as it has assumed an alarming proportion. It has been known in Nigeria that every government embarks on one form of poverty reduction strategy or the other. However what has remained an issue is the weak impact it has on the poor who are the target beneficiaries. The perceptions of the poor about poverty reduction programmes have been that of ineffectiveness and irrelevance in their lives as government poverty reduction efforts contributes little to their struggle to survive. Despite the various poverty reduction programmes put in place by the federal, state and local government to fight poverty over the years, the level of poverty is still high.

Indeed it is a paradox of poor people in rich country, in other words “poverty in the midst of plenty”. Statistical data available indicates that by 1960 the poverty level in Nigeria covers about 15% of the population and by 1980 it rose to 28%. In 1985, the poverty level was 46% and it dropped to 43% by 1992. By 1996, the Federal Office of Statistics estimated poverty level in Nigeria at about 66%. The poverty levels by zones as at 2008 shows that South -South has 35.1%; South East 26.7%; South West 43.0%; North Central 67.0%; North East 72.2% and North West has 71.2% as well (NBS, 2013).

Poverty and unemployment are major features that affect Nigeria economy in general and Kaduna State in particular. This is so in the sense that almost 67% of the Kaduna North population is living in abject poverty as a result of insufficient wealth creation or employment opportunities thereby reducing the level of development. Despite the attempt made by the government to alleviate poverty and reduce the level of unemployment by creating more jobs, it still appears that the Kaduna North economy has not averted the problem of unemployment and poverty which has affected the standard of living of the individuals in locality. Against this prevailing social problem, it is necessary to undertake a study into this area to explore the effectiveness of alleviating poverty in Kaduna North Local Government Area through government programmes like NAPEP.

From the foregoing, the research questions that this study seeks to investigate are as follows:

(i)                What is the impact of NAPEP on poverty eradication in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State?

(ii)             What are the various programmes of government that implemented to address poverty in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State?

(iii)           How has NAPEP affected the household income of beneficiaries in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State ?

1.3      Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme on poverty reduction in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

The specific objectives are:

(i)                Examine various programmes of government towards poverty eradication in the country;

(ii)             Assess the influence of NAPEP on household income of beneficiaries.


1.4     Research Hypothesis

The hypotheses or assumptions that this study seek to test are presented below. The hypotheses are stated in both forms, that is, the null hypothesis (H0) against an alternative hypothesis (H1).

H01:   NAPEP has not impact on poverty eradication in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

H1:     NAPEP has impact on poverty eradication in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

H02:   NAPEP has not affected household income in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

H1:     NAPEP has affected the household income of Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.5     Significance of the Study

Poverty is pervasive in Nigeria over the years. It has attracted the attention of policy makers, development experts and the general public. This has led to the implementation of many programmes by government, non state actors and concerned individuals. A study like is important in order to determine the impact of such programmes in addressing poverty.

This study therefore, has theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, the study will contribute to the body of theoretical literature on the role of intervention programmes in eradicating poverty. Practically, the study will provide empirical or quantitative evidence on the impact of NAPEP on poverty eradication.

Furthermore, the findings of the study will be relevant for policy makers in terms of recommendations that will be drawn based on findings, researchers on the subject matter and the general public who want to access the impact of poverty eradication programme like NAPEP.


1.6      Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is on the impact of National Poverty Eradication Programme and covers Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Specifically, the beneficiaries of the programme will be the focus of the study.   

The major limitations of the study include time constraints. A study like this is time bound and as such the research was made to be undertaking within the stipulated time.

The study requires the use of primary data using questionnaire as the main instrument. The responses are subjective in nature and that in a way will affect the outcome of the research especially those respondents who may not be objective in their responses. Also some of the questionnaires were not properly responded to and therefore affected the number of questionnaires completed.

The finance required to undertake a thorough research was much and the researcher can only use what is at his disposal.

However, the researcher use persuasive means to ensure objectivity is strictly adhered to and quality maintained.


1.7     Organization of the Study

The study is structured into five chapters. Apart from chapter one which this part concludes as introduction, chapter two is literature review and theoretical framework. In this part conceptual issues are discussed, previous studies on the subject matter are reviewed and theoretical framework provided to highlight the linkages. Chapter three is research methodology which discusses the methods of data collection and technique of analysis. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data obtained from the field survey. Chapter five is summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.

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