evaluation of entrepreneurial development in curbing unemployment in the economy. A case study of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State

evaluation of entrepreneurial development in curbing unemployment in the economy. A case study of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State

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The objective of this study is to find out an evaluation of entrepreneurial development in curbing unemployment in the economy. A case study of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. To guide this study, research questions will be drawn in accordance to the main objective of the study. The survey research design will be used for gathering data for the study. The structured questionnaire will be validated by the Supervisor and the reliability of the instrument will be established for data collection. The data will be collected by the researcher and the mean statistics will be used to analyze data in tables according to research questions that guided the study. The findings in this research work include lack of government support, poverty, rural-urban migration and lack of infrastructural facilities. Recommendations will be made on how to improve this sector which includes the provision of adequate funds by the government, creation of adequate job opportunities, incentives from the government and provision of infrastructural facilities to enhance a greater performance. 


1.0     Introduction

Unemployment can be described as the state of worklessness experienced by persons who are members of the labour force but are not capable to work. Unemployment is a global trend, but it occurs mostly in developing countries of the world, with attendant social, economic, political psychological consequences. Thus, massive youth unemployment in any country is an indication of far more complex problems. The ILO (2014) report showed that the proportions of world unemployment are steadily increasing and that the number of those without jobs remained at an all time high of more than 195 million, or 6.3 percent, in 2012.

1.1     Background of the Study

The menace of unemployment has created a huge vacuum in the mind of many scholars both in Nigeria and the world at large. This is so because the rising rate of poverty and other social vices have stimulated the economic and political crises experienced in recent time. World Bank (2014) in its report predicted that poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa is set to rise and by 2018 constitute 50% of the world poorest people.

However, Nigeria is naturally gifted with both material, human and entrepreneurship skills but the realization of the full potential of these opportunities have been inhibited by the implementation of inappropriate and unsustainable industrialization policies at different periods (Adebobola, 2014). Government at all levels have come up with several policies designed to stimulate entrepreneurship development via small and medium scale enterprises based on technology transfer strategy. According to Igwe (2013), between 45 and 60 percent of the urban labour force engage in small a private enterprise which is believed to have contributed greatly to the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria.

Entrepreneurship on the other hand has been beneficial because the Nigerian private sector comprising of small and medium enterprises provides diverse employment opportunities for over 50 percent of the country's population and 50 percent of the industrial output (Oyelola, 2013). Many other countries have been able to strengthen and transform entrepreneurship sub-sector to such a vibrant and exciting industry such that they have been able to reduce considerably their unemployment and poverty level because of the huge and enormous contribution of the sub-sector to their economic growth and development (Onugu, 2015). Unfortunately, this cannot be said about Nigeria as the case is different.

Citizens particularly youths in Kaduna State are said to be confronted with poverty and unemployment which is caused by lack of capacity and essential productive skills for both creative employment in existing organizations and for self-employment (Shagari, 2010). Many people are unemployed because they have not acquired the kind of skills that are frequently demanded in the environment they operate. Others are unemployed because their skills have been rendered obsolete by technological changes or because they have no skills at all (Kpakol, 2011). With inadequate skills and few opportunities,  the youths in the state face a future of low-wage employment, unemployment and under-employment in the informal sector with little security and prospects (Dandago & Muhammad, 2014). The expansion of employment opportunities in the state is far below the growth in population because of lack of productive skills and investments. This reality leaves youth in the state without any sustainable means of livelihood, as a result of which, poverty and unemployment have become the ugly twin faces of the state’s economy. There is no doubt that one of the problems confronting many nations is how to combat the challenges of unemployment, with entrepreneurship development seen as a remedy to this problem.

1.2     Statement of Problem

Unemployment as it is called has been an issue of discourse in Nigeria. This has grown large that the situation cannot be addressed by mere campaign or words of mouth (Nwankwo & Ifejiofor, 2014). It requires the combined efforts of both individuals and the government of the country in particular and the world at large to formulate a lasting strategy to curb this menace. Unemployment in Nigeria has affected the youth and the economic development of the country from a broad spectrum of socio-economic perspective. It is obvious that the situation especially that of youth unemployment affected Nigeria's progress in several ways. Apart from the economic waste it brought to the nation, it also constitutes political unrest for the country (Ipaye, 2011). According to Ezie (2012), the unemployment situation in Nigeria is disturbing and even more disheartening that the country's economic condition cannot absorb an optimal proportion of its labour force. This situation has resulted in the continuous increase in crimes and other social vices experienced in our society in recent time. To salvage this ugly situation, several strategies have been developed in all spares of human endeavours. These strategies are all found in entrepreneurship.

Taiwo (2014) observed that in any given economy, entrepreneurship development always give birth to job creation which will force people to do something that will better their lives and the country at large. He evaluated the relationship between job creation and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. It was clear from his observation, job creation or employment opportunity in an economy can be traceable to entrepreneurship training and development. This is similar to the study of Nwachukwu & Ogbo (2012). Therefore, many studies have been conducted on this area in many parts of the world as well as in Nigeria, but none has been done in Kaduna state. This study sought to investigate the evaluation of entrepreneurial development in curbing unemployment in the economy. A case study of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to determine the evaluation of entrepreneurial development in curbing unemployment in the economy. A case study of Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

Specifically, this study examines:

1.                 To determine the Problem of Nigerian entrepreneurs.

2.                 To determine the Causes of unemployment in Nigeria.

3.                 To ascertain the solutions to unemployment in Nigeria.

1.4     Research Questions     

     Research questions are very fundamental when research of this magnitude   

    is due to be carried out. It includes the following:

1.                 What are the problems militating against the Nigerian entrepreneurs?

2.                 What are the causes of unemployment in Nigeria?

3.                 What strategies or solutions that can be adopted to curb the  unemployment in Nigeria?

1.5      Scope  and Limitations of the Study

The research study covers only the Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state as a result of lack of time and financial constraints. Inspite of this limitation, it is the hope of the researcher that this research work would lay foundation for future research work.

1.6     Definition of Operational Terms    

Unemployment: Unemployment is the state of being unemployed or the amount of unused labour. It refers to labour that is not engaged or that is not put into use for productive purpose. Unemployment is also defined as the percentage of the labour force that is without job. It is the total percentage of people who want to work but the work is not available.

Economy:  The state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money.

Development:-Is a process whereby the population of a particular society are involved in solving in personal and community problem generated by that of society through participation in sharing the cost and benefits. Development can also be seen as a process of economically, political and social transformation within a country.

Evaluation: Is the process of determining merit, worth, or significance whose success is to be judged by what others learn.

Curbing: Strategies designed to solve a particular problem.

Entrepreneur:  Is a person who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on them. Entrepreneurship: Is defined as the willing-ness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities in an environment, and be able to establish and run an enterprise successfully based on the identified opportunities.

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