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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific objectives (Ayeni 2011). The importance of teaching and learning to a nation cannot be overemphasized. Teaching and learning are dependent events that occur simultaneously and are inseparable.
Where teaching is going on learning is also taking place. The primary purpose of teaching is to bring fundamental change in the learner. (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Learning is a relatively permanent change in human behavior arising from experience.
Surprisingly, the term teaching has been erroneously misunderstood to mean an act by anybody who is assumed to be knowledgeable to disseminate information to others. It is this wrong interpretation of the term that has led to the appointment of many unprofessionally qualified people performing the task of teaching. Teaching is a serious business. It is very tasking and highly demanding. It is an art of passing knowledge by way of deliberate arrangement of the task to be learnt, the methods to be used, the materials to be used, the learners, the evaluation as well as the entire teaching - learning environment in a manner that will provide learning arising from the interactions. Therefore, any teaching activity which fails to produce the desired outcome (learning) is not to be taken as teaching. To facilitate the relatively permanent change in student’s behavior, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives.
Furthermore, research on assessment of teaching and learning of economics had examine the extent to which quality teaching methods bring expected changed in student. It was noticed that poor academic performance of students in economics was the result of application of in effective teaching methods which did not achieve the desired objectives.- Substantial research on the assessment of teaching indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. Teaching and learning had been assessed by many researchers to bring out the best way of teaching and learning had been assessed by many researchers to bring out the best way of teaching and learning of economics that provide better learning. The effect of quality teaching of economics should be the interest of every economics teacher and student. This is what has actually prompted the need for this research. Morakiya (2003) believe that the falling level of academic achievement is attributed to teachers' nonuse of appropriate teaching methods.
Looking, however, at what is applicable in the selected secondary schools, the general practice by both teachers and learners towards the teaching is not encouraging. Emphasis is only made of teacher centre method the traditional approach in spite of other teaching methods - the nontraditional approach.
Another problem, access in teaching and learning of economics is some so called economics teachers are not professionally qualified to teach it. They do not teach it well, as they are not specialist in the field of education. They are graduates of economics but not in the field of teaching, they lack the rudiment of presentation.
Lastly some student nonchalant attitude about such a serious matter of learning impedes learning process.
1.2 The Statement of the Problem
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. Spoken words alone in communication of idea are grossly not enough in providing desire learning outcomes. The research work is aimed at assessing teaching and learning and identifying the causes of student’s poor performance in economies. As a result of this and other problems, this research will specifically investigate the following:-
1. The methods and techniques employed by teacher in the teaching of economic in secondary school and effectiveness of these methods and techniques. How students in the secondary schools are motivated to learn and understand economics. The types of teachers employed to teach economics in the schools.
2. The types of instructional material e.g. textbooks, posters, pictures, charts teaching aid etc. used by the teachers and how relevant those materials are to the teaching and learning of economics.
3. The areas of difficulty faced by teachers and students in the cause of teaching and learning of economics. Suggest how best to improve the teaching and learning of economics in secondary school.
1.3 The Objective of the Study:
The objectives of this study are to identify some of the major problems that are associated with teaching and learning of economics in some secondary schools in Kaduna south Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Having identified such problems the researchers hope to proffer possible solutions which might help to reduce to the barest minimum the number of such problems.
1. To find out how economics is been taught in secondary schools.
2. To find out how economics is been taught in secondary school.
3. To draw attention of the school administrators, educational planner, economic policy makers and curriculum developers to be aware of what is happening in classroom. Assess and evaluate the quality of teachers teaching economics and the material used in teaching, whether the materials are adequate, relevant or not.
4. To address various challenges faced by teachers and learners of economics.
5. Finally, it is hoped that the study would assists in future other researchers who might be interested in conducting a study in this field.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be used to guide the study.
i. Will there be any significant difference between the academic performance of students in economics taught with traditional method and those with nontraditional method?
ii. Will there be any significance difference in the performance of students in economics due to the use of instructional material?
iii. Will there be any significance difference between the performances of students in economic taught by professionally qualified teachers in economics and those taught by nonqualified teachers?
iv. Will the use of instructional materials have significant influence on students learning economics?
v. Will there be any significant difference between the performance of students in economics motivated and those who are not motivated
1.5 Basic Assumption
The following are the assumption of the study
i. Teaching method instructional materials significantly affect students learning and performance.
ii. The variable to be used in the study is appropriate and suitable. iii. The instruments to be used in gathering data are valid and reliable. iv. The results of this study can be generalized.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of Study
The research study is limited to Kaduna South Local Government Area of
Kaduna State only. There are many secondary schools in the area but few schools were selected, preferably those with large population. The study focuses on the assessment of teaching and learning of economics.
The factors being examined are methods of teaching, qualification of teachers, instructional materials used and how student are motivated to learn.
The following limitations were envisaged to be encountered by the
Financial Constraints: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for relevant materials, high cost of transportation fares brought difficult in movement. The difficulty posed by the inadequate fund was responsible for not covering a wide scope and enough materials as it was supposed to be.
Time Constraints: The period of time given to the researcher to enable him get more details as regard the regard work was not enough to get enough detail and could not cover a wide area. As the researcher was allocated limited time of study. The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research.
1.7 The Significance of the Study
It is the hope of the researcher that the work will acquaint the economics teachers with the problems of economics teaching. Apart from this, it will also be of immense use to other teachers in various subjects who are faced with similar problem. Furthermore, it will make the economics students know where emphasis should be laid to further enrich the study and learning of economics.
Finally this study will serve as a guide line to stakeholder in education as to what must be done to give students a progressive education.
Learning: This is the process of acquiring knowledge in economics among secondary school students.
Teaching: Transmission of the knowledge of economics to secondary school students.
Economics: This is a social science subject taught in secondary school. Instructional Materials: These are aids used in teaching and learning of economics in secondary school.
Traditional teaching method: This is teacher oriented teaching style, with the teacher being the controller of the learning environment.
1.9 The Operational Definition/of Terms
The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.
Assessment: The action or an instance of making a judgment about teaching and learning.
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