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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Tourism is the free movement of people to destinations outside their usual places of residence and work, on a temporary basis, as well as the service industries created to satisfy the needs arising from the movements, within national or across international boundaries, for leisure, adventure, health, business, religion, sports etc. Thus, tourism involves short-term travel at least for one day and not more than one year, expenditure on transport, accommodation, purchases and services, from when the visitors leaves home until he/she returns as well as the impact of such visits and activities on the socio-economic, political and physical environment of the host communities and visitors themselves (Oyakhilome, 2005).
Tourism has a profound role to play in bringing people together through its track of diplomacy, to become better acquainted with people in other places and countries by furthering the understanding and appreciation that builds a better world for everybody. Travel raises levels of human experience, recognition, and achievements in many areas of learning, research and artistic activity. People sometimes lose sight of the fact that cultural tourism is first and foremost a form of tourism. They forget that the word cultural is an adjective that modifies the noun tourism”. Thus, while cultural tourism uses the cultural or heritage assets of a destination, its performance is guided by the same principles that drive any other form of tourism. Understanding cultural tourism, therefore, is predicated on developing an understanding of what tourism is, how it works, and what drive tourism decisions.
According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the year 2005 saw more than 800 million international tourist arrivals, and the tourism receipts were of US$ 682 billion. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) for 2006 forecasts that travel and tourism will generate 234 million direct and indirect jobs worldwide, accounting for 8.7% of the global employment, and it will contribute up to 10.3% of the world GDP. According to the same estimate, the global travel and tourism activity is expected to increase by 4.7% between 2007 and 2016. And also there are links between the tourist and destination such as the transportations, information availability, and marketing components to make buying decision easier.
The profitability of international tourism industry has gained widespread recognition of tourism as a promising development agent for developing countries. Throughout the past fifty years, tourism has rapidly spread and has emerged as a major export sector in many countries (UNWTO, 2007). The decision to adopt tourism as an agent of development has been largely based on the expectation that tourism can: increased foreign exchange earnings, create employment, attract foreign investment and positively contribute to local economic and the national balance of payments (Sharply and Telfair, 2002). In other cases it has been said that tourism is turned to as a last option by countries that lack extractable resources, are burdened by foreign debt, and rely on international aid (Brown, 1998).
Tourism goes beyond dependable transportation and comfortable hotels; it necessitates enhancing all the avenues through which a country presents itself. They include educational, cultural media, science, and meeting/congress activities. The two important aspects as regards cultural tourism promotion indicated by Bob and Hilary (2002) are 1) Some people really know the nuances of cultural tourism and 2) Little communication occurs between tourism and cultural heritage management people. To increase accessibility, cultural institutions need to adapt to meet visitor’s needs, sometimes providing multilingual guides and signage. Tourists can then more easily choose the purposeful activities that will match their interests. Tourism thus is instrumental in reinforcing the cultural pride, social mores, values and etiquettes. It also affects a semblance of stability.
Cultural tourism is big business, and studies suggest that it can be a major contributor to community economic revenues. A 1999 study by the National Tour Association in the US indicated that 20 per cent of tourism revenues are based on cultural tourism. When Canadian travel consumers were asked what type of trip they would be interested in taking in the future, more than 60 per cent said they were ‘very interested’ or somewhat interested’ in a heritage or cultural trip. Similarly, while most Europeans tend to visit Canada because of the nature/wilderness character, cultural experiences are still rate relatively high.
Kaduna state is richly endowed with a wide range of natural and cultural resources relative to other state in Nigeria and on a global level most of which are largely untapped. These resources fall into protected ecosystems (game reserves and recreational parks), protected landscapes or natural sceneries, cultural sites, coastline, traditional festival and historic relics and monuments (Okechuku, 1990 and Okoli 2001).Kaduna state tourism resources are highly distributed from the south-northern part of Kaduna, which has a geo-cultural pattern, (Okoli 2001). Southern Kaduna has the potential to earn substantial revenue from its rich cultural heritage, beautiful sceneries and device annual cultural festivals.
Nigeria is richly blessed with potential revenue earners other than crude oil. In the case of southern kaduna, the tourist attractions are so many as they are diverse- from Mastirgawaterfals and its sister Adodari-Awatsung waterfall in Madakiya, to the globally acclaimed Nok cultural safe at Kuwi in Jema’a Local Government Area. Apart from the waterfalls and hils, some parts of southern Kaduna are blessed with a mild climate like Plateau state with which they share more than just border. Many mountains, which can attract mountain climbers from around the world, have not been given attention to.
Matsirga waterfalls, which takes its source from springs on the Kagoro hills cascading from four different natural funnels off the sheer rock cliff from about 25 meters to from a large pool at the bottom, is situated close to Kafanchan about 227 kilometers from the capital of Kaduna state. The water at matsirga drops 30 meters into a gorge supported by beautiful rocks wonderfully arranged by nature. A natural rock shelter at the river banks forms a cover and a resting place for picnicking, like half of an umbrella it provides shade for tourist amidst the wondrous continuous waterfall.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
In spite of having such a vast potentiality the community has not been able to develop cultural tourism for the following reasons:
1. Poor state of publicity- Though the state has a lot of cultural resources, it has not been able to give due publicity in national and international arena and thus tourist mobility is restricted to only a couple of destinations in the area.
2. Lack of renovation of archeological spots and monuments- Only a couple of archeological spots and monuments have been renovated so far.
3. Inadequate infrastructural facilities- Infrastructural facilities are highly inadequate in the state for tourism, both in terms of transportation and accommodation.
4. Lack of imaginative organization- Imaginative organization of the shows of traditional local art, culture, dance, drama, music session, fairs and festivals for the benefit of the tourists is lacking.
5. Attitude of people- Hospitality is a quality which is required in cultural tourism. The poor role played by the people in this respect affects the growth of tourism in the area.
6. Socio-political unrest- Another very important deterrent to the development of cultural tourism is the socio-political unrest that is going on here. And insurgency hinders to the growth of the tourism.
7. Lack of promotion of indigenous crafts- Practically nothing has been done in the state to sell the rich folk and cultural heritage as well as crafts through tourism.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Do cultural activities in the community attract visitors?
ii. How can these cultural activities be improved to attract visitors to the area?
iii. What benefit does the community enjoy from the cultural activities in the area in term of tourism to the development of the community?
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study aims at assessing the potentials of cultural tourism to economic development of Moro’a chiefdom, Kaura L.G.A Kaduna State, Nigeria. To achieve this aim the following objectives were considered.
i. Identification of cultural activities in the community.
ii. Determine how these cultural activities can be improved.
iii. Determine the benefits of these cultural activities in term of tourism to economic development in the community.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will restrict itself to the cultural activities in the area, mode of dressing as well as material culture. The study will be restricted to the Moro’a chiefdom and it will also involve all the districts that make up the moro’a chiefdom.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable policy makers to assess cultural tourism as a tool for development in the Local government, so that challenges can be identified and recommendations may be made towards more effective Tourism development.
It will serve as a relevant document for individuals, government, and corporate organizations interested in developing cultural tourism.
This study will also contribute to knowledge, which will be useful to researchers in cultural tourism development studies.
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