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The Philosophy of the Nigeria preservice teachers college in Biology programme is inspired by the desire to help Teachers become intellectually informed in Biology and to produce competent and effective Biology teachers with good mastery of contents and methods and consequently develop the knowledge of the learners (FGN 2012).
The preservice teacher education programme is such that Teachers are expected to offer Biology in combination with other science subjects known as “subject combination”. The term subject combination in colleges of education refers to the two teaching subjects offered along with general education courses. There are subject combinations that are „single major‟ and some double major‟. Single subject combinations are those in which Teachers have to combine two subjects along with general education while double major subject combinations are those in which Teachers take one subject carrying double weights along with the general education course.
In most of our secondary schools, Biology and other science teachers are in short supply and the few available are more often not well equipped. This perception probably necessitated the introduction of Biology single major combinations in Nigeria Colleges of Education: such combinations are Biology/Biology; Biology/Computer Science; Biology/Integrated Science; Biology/ Chemistry; Biology /Biology among others. This step is an attempt to increase Teachers‟ population in the Biology thereby meeting the shortage of man power in Biology and other sciences.
Very few studies on the effects of subject combination on preservice Teachers performance in Colleges of Education are available. Studies, such as Arigbadu and Mji (2006), examined the influence of subject combinations on preservice Biology teachers‟ examination performance in Nigeria. Also, Arigbadu (2004) examined the influence of subject combination on the performance of Teachers in Biology in Nigeria Colleges of Education. The results revealed that Biology
Teachers performed better than other Teachers. In their view, Usman and Memeh (2007), assert that achievement of Teachers in Biology was a critical fitter in the physical sciences and technology. In another study, Ogundipe (1991), investigated the effects of gender on subject combinations as factors of Teachers performance in economics and found no significant difference between the sexs in performance in the subject. Sex is another important factor that has been considered in the study of Teachers‟ performance in Biology.
In their various studies, Iorchugh (2006), Akinbobola and Afolabi(2009), Dania (2014), no significant difference between the performances of male and female in Biology were found. However, Adeoye and Sataye (2003), and Okwo and Otuboh (2007), found significant sex based differences in Teachers performance in Biology in favour of male Teachers.
The measurement of performance has posed in problem in academic circle. The validity of the test, the competency of the score and the conducive environment is questionable. More importantly when teachers award marks, the reliability is often required. Carter (1953) pointed out that when Grade Point Average (GPA) is used, errors are introduced in the process of aggregating marks from different sources in such computations. When it comes to the use of letter grades, there are usually variations in grade from subject and/or department. However, other available sources for the teacher to test the Teachers‟ performance apart from the use of marks or grades are rarely used and are less meaningful. Also, there is no known study found to have examined the influence of subject combinations on Teachers‟ performance in Biology in Nigeria Colleges of Education.
The present study is therefore a study into these areas. It is hoped that the study would provide Colleges of Education and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) with relevant information about the state of Biology Teachers‟ performance in Colleges of Education on the basis of subject combinations and possible steps to address the situation of subject combination implementation in the area.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a serious concern about the poor state of teaching and learning of Biology worldwide. This has made educators to focus more on Biology education. Inadequacies have been observed in science teacher education in general and Biology education in particular in our Colleges of Education. This situation has apparently resulted to Teachers‟ poor performance in the subject. Could this be as a result of Teachers‟ deficient basic knowledge in Biology? Or could it also be as a result of the nature of other subjects combined with Biology.
In Colleges of Education where the “subject combination” are being implemented, there is equally a concern about how Teachers with different subject combinations compare especially in the sciences. Do some combinations in Biology give an edge over others in Biology achievement? Does sex difference similarly results in performance differences in Biology?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1. To investigate the influence of combination and sex on the performance of Biology teachers at preservice.
2. To determine the difference in the achievements of biology teachers in Biology courses across the various subject combination
3. To find out the difference between the achievements of male and female teachers in Biology courses across the various subject combination
4. To identify the Policies on Professionalization and Legislation on Teaching in Nigeria
1. Is there a difference in the achievements of Biology teachers in Biology courses across the various subject combinations in preservice?
2. Is there a difference between the achievements of male and female teachers in Biology courses across the various subject combinations in preservice?
3. What are the Policy on Professionalization and Legislation on Teaching in Nigeria?
Hypotheses I There is no significant difference in the performance of Biology teachers in Biology across the various subject combinations in the preservice level
Hypotheses II There is no significant difference between the performance of male and female Biology Teachers in Biology across the various levels in the preservice level
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study will help NCE to know how subject combination will lead to efficiency of preservices teachers when they are in-service. The study will be of benefit to both in-service and preservice teachers on how to manage students and classroom for high academic performance and efficiency
The study will also be useful by contributing to existing literature and also to related articles.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The study aim at investigating the effect of subject combination and gender and how it affect preservice teachers academic performance.The study used Edo state college of Education(Ekiadolor).
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Preservice teachers : Also known as teacher candidates, this term is used to describe student teachers who are enrolled in a teacher preparation program and working toward teacher certification
Subject combination: This is the combination of two courses and been treated as a whole in tertiary institutions
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