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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The activities of the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply have increased overtime. Within few decades ago, there have been efforts to increase provision of domestic water for both rural and urban homes. However, water is still unavailable to many, mainly those located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia (Ellen and Kellog, 2005). Furthermore, the availability of water varies greatly, while some people pay so dearly for domestic water, others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation due to their location and social status in the society (Hunter et al., 2009a).
The United Nations as part of its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stipulates that by 2015 the population of people without sustainable access to safe water will be reduced by half (Linda, 2005). As a result of this, efforts are being made by the developed nations to increase provision of domestic water and sanitation, but no serious efforts are made by the developing nations to meet this target. Rural communities in many developing nations have to obtain their drinking water from untreated surface sources, often situated far away from their residence. For instance, in many Nigerian rural communities, water supply infrastructures are still at developmental stage or are completely absent (Rossiter et al., 2010).
Worldwide, waterborne diseases cause death and suffering of millions of people, especially children in developing countries. This made the World Health Organization (WHO) to suggest that improving sanitation and hygiene could drastically reduce child mortality. Recent survey by Majuru et al., (2011) estimated that 65 million Nigerians had no access to safe water. The situation was worse in the rural areas where only 24% of the population were said to have access to safe water. Provision of clean, reliable and potable water in rural areas remain therefore a challenge considering the fact that the larger percentage of the population live in rural areas. When provision of clean water is inadequate, people are compelled to use contaminated water that later result into water related diseases and in the outbreak of these diseases. Thus, governments need to spend money on what would have been prevented by provision of clean water (Mwendera, 2006).
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The major sources of water supply for the rural populace are hand-dug wells, natural springs and streams, together with rainfall harvest, majority of which are highly unreliable during the dry seasons (Makoni et al., 2004). As in other parts of the country, efforts geared towards rural development in Nigeria and towards “water for all by the year 2020” have increased the assessment, exploration and exploitation of water resources both surface and underground (Ellen and Kellog, 2005). Although there were investments in the provision of potable water to local dwellers in the state by both government and non-governmental organizations, there is still a long way to go (Gay et al., 2007)
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to carry out an assessment of sustainable water supply in Maiduguri/Jere L.G.A of Borno State. Other specific objectives of the study are:
1. to determine the importance of adequate water supply to the residence of Maiduguri and Jere local government of Borno State
2. to determine the causes of shortage in water supply in Maiduguri/jere local government area
3. to determine the challenges faced by the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply in Maiduguri/jere L.G.A of Borno state
4. proffer solution to the above stated problem
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:
1. What is the importance of adequate water supply to the residence of Maiduguri and Jere local government of Borno State?
2. What are the causes of shortage in water supply in Maiduguri/jere local government area?
3. What are the challenges faced by the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply in Maiduguri/jere L.G.A of Borno state?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: the challenges faced by the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply in Maiduguri/jere L.G.A of Borno state is high
H0: the challenges faced by the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply in Maiduguri/jere L.G.A of Borno state is low
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on an assessment of sustainable water supply in Maiduguri/Jere local government area of Borno State will be of immense benefit to the entire residence of Maiduguri and Jere local government area, the government (local, State and federal) and other researchers that desire to carry similar research on the above topic as the findings of the study will educate the entire population on the importance of adequate water supply, the challenges faced by the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply in Nigeria. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The on an assessment of sustainable water supply will be of limited to Maiduguri/Jere local government area of Borno State. The study will cover on the importance of adequate water supply, the challenges faced by the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of adequate water supply in Nigeria
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
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