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1.1  Background of the Study

Education provides children with the knowledge and skills necessary to advance themselves and their nation economically. To this effect, there are some socio-economic factors and political factors that often affect the level of performance of children who undergo the educational system more especially in Nigeria setting.

However, social is a concept that relate to human society and its mode of organization or rank and status in society, or interacting with other people and living communities. In other words, social is the cultural behaviour of any given society in which they belong. Moreover, socio-economic factors such as family income level, parents’ level of education, all influence


the equality and availability of education as well as the ability of education to improve children life. In connection to aforementioned facts, Remi (1993) observed that at the family level, a parent send their children to school according to their level of influence or property. Hence, in Nigeria, wealthy parents send their children to private schools while poor parents send their children to schools while poor parents send their children to schools which may provide less effective learning facilities. Similarly, a clear illustration of Reni’s fact can be seen from the fact that in most Nigerian societies, especially in Gusau metropolis, there are some primary and secondary schools that are meant for only children of a particular class. In other words, there are schools that can only be afforded by the children of the rich and there are schools children of the poor cannot afford. Similarly, Orhungar (1990) asserts that the cultural background of the


family is determined to a large extent by its socio-economic background, as the child grows up, moves out to the interest of wider society, his interaction with it and perception of it are largely determined from his/her earlier experiences at home. The setting and socializing influence moulds the personality of the child.

On the other hand, Anahalu (1982), despite the fact that educational provision have been political since the beginning of the regional government in 1955, the western region state, the Universal Primary Education in 1976 which was launched by the Federal Ministry of Education under General Olusegun Obasanjo. This was also followed up to the formation fact in terms of developing national educational system started in 1969 by the informal curriculum conference which led to the publication by the informal curriculum conference in 1977, thereby revision was made in 1981. The policy stipulated aqa


uniform period of six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary school and three years of senior secondary school and four years of university education.

In addition to that, the new system was introduced by Obasanjo Administration in the country. It was reformed under democracy era which was known as the 9-3-4 system whereby nine years is expected to be spend by children in primary school, three years in secondary school and four years in the university. Equally important, the civilian government of Jonathan has of recent (during the early of 2012) introduced Almajiri Educational System and was launched in 2012 in Dange-Shuni Local Government Area of Sokoto State. All these are political factors that affect children performance in learning process on which often determines the level of performance of children. Therefore, the concern of this work is to look at such factors and analyze them with


special overview in some selected secondary schools in Gusau metropolis.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Initially, there is a gap in performance between students and academic excellent which often constitute a great source of worry and serious concern in academic setting, to parents, school administrators or school managers, policy makers and government. Therefore, the finding of the research work will clearly show that among the students, there are some differences which influence students’ academic performance such as availability of learning facilities, socio-economic background of parent, political factors by the government. Some students are able to pay their school fees promptly, while others are unable which might lead to be sent away for non-payment of school fees. Likewise, some students were


motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials such as textbooks, exercise books, while others are not opportune to these provisions.

Thus, in the light of this, the main problem of this research is to find out whether such problems still exist in teaching and learning process, especially in some selected secondary schools in Gusau metropolis (i.e. socio-economic factors and political factors affecting students’ performance).

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of the study. These are to find out:

1.          the level of awareness on formal education among people in the area of conducting research.

2.          the effect of socio-economic status on parents on the educational performance of students.


3.         whether educational policies affect students’ performance.

4.          whether welfare of teachers have been taken care properly by the government.

5.          the availability of educational facilities to students in some selected secondary schools in Gusau metropolis.

1.4     Research Questions

For the purpose of this research work, the following research questions have been formulated. They are as follow:

1.          Do people have much awareness on formal education?

2.          Do parent’s socio-economic status influence academic performance of students?

3.          Do government educational policies affect student’s performance in learning process?


4.          Are the welfare of teachers being taken care of by the government?

5.          Do government provide adequate facilities to students in learning process?

1.5     Significance of the Study

The work of this nature when completed may help parents and government to be aware of the effect the family has on children and how such effects affects the child positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. Therefore, from the available recommendations they will be able to adopt measures of bring up their children in such a way that they will perform well academically.

Similarly, this study could aid children of various families to be aware and bear in mind with their parents’ inability to provide them with all the necessary requirements


in school and also sympathize with them in family problems and situations.

In addition to that, for educational and curriculum planners, this could serve as guideline in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environment. The research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation and the world in general to benefit from the adherence to the recommendations and implementation to produce youth that would be better leaders of tomorrow. Finally, the research work when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.

1.6  Definition of Key Terms

Socio-Economic Factors: This means the social and economic situations in which a child find himself which in


any way or the way these factors affect his performance positively or negatively. These include his home, parent’s income, school, society beliefs, peer groups and his environment together with the initial encouragement.

Political Factors: These are factors or educational policies which government of a particular state implemented with aim to bring about improvement in educational sector.

Thus, a political factor refers to any activity related to government policy and its administrative practices that can have effect on something or teaching and learning process. In a nutshell, political factors within the context of this research work may include government policies and programmes that shape and aid children’s educational careers.

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