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1.1 Background Of The Study
Today’s business environment is very dynamic and under goes rapid changes as a result of technological innovation, increased awareness and demands from customers.
Business organization especially the banking industry of the 21st century operators in a complex and competitive environment characterized by these changing conditions and highly unpredictable economic climate information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the centre of this changes curve. Laudon and Laudon, (1991) contend that managers cannot ignore information system because they play a critical role in contemporary organization. That point that the entire cash flow of most fortune 500 companies is limited to information system.
The application of information and communication Technology concept, techniques, policies and implementation strategies of banking services has become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all banks and indeed a prereavisible for local and global competitiveness (ICT) directly affects how managers decides, how they plan and what products and services ware offered in the banking industry. It has continued to change the way banks and their corporate relationship are organized worldwide and the variety of inactive devices available to enhance the speed and quality of services delivery.
Harold and Jaff (1995), contend that financial services provide should modify their traditional operating practices to remain viable in the 1990’s and decades that follows. They claims the most significant shortcoming in the banking industry today is a wide spread failure on the part of senior management is banks to grasp the importance of technology and incorporate it into strategic plans accordingly.
Weherem (2000) claimed that only banks that over haul the whole of the payment and delivery systems and prosper in the new delivery system in order to properly position them within the framework of the dynamism of information and communication technology. The banking industry in Nigeria has witnessed tremendous changes linked with the development in ICT over the years.
The question for survival, global maintenance of existing market share sustainable development has made exploitation of advantages of ICT through the use of automated device imperative in the industry.
This study evaluate the response, of Nigeria banks to this new trend and examines the extent to which they have adopted innorative technologies in their operation and the resultant effects.
1.2 Statements of the Problem
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is progressively reducing the significance of other factors of production through ICT it is now possible for countries to trade without border restrictions. Therefore as a result of anchoring their operations on (ICT) based delivery system the banks with ICT services have become more profitable.
Though the advantages and opportunities that ICT offers are very great, but this is not without some challenges fraud can likely occur more seriously in financial industry (banking) since large amount may be easier to operate electronically than the manual operation fraudster can beat various security codes through fraud can be greatly minimized, but there could still be some element of dishonest act.
Moreover, another area in which the adoption of information technology has negatively affected the banking sector is the threat it poses for the employees in the sector. According to Jaffer (1968), he ascertained that “unemployment is cyclical phenomenon technological progress may take for short problems of unemployment which rescure time for adjustment because of unmobility of capital and labour.”
According to an official of National Union of Banks, Insurance Finance Institution Employee (NUBIFIE) one of the greatest achievements of the group before the adoption of information technology in banks was the security and guarantee of employment for the members. In the words for Ibrahim (1998), he stated that (ICT) was adopted in bank without any notice without any plan for the future existence of the displaced employees without rehabilitation plan and benefits.
1.3 Objective of the Study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) increasing, this sort of ICT is vital to the banking industry because it allows holders to do banking online as well as contact customer services support team member from mobile communication devices, or their home computers the objective of the study will be:
i. To identify possible defects and loopholes (if any) in the banking system
ii. To reveal the need for (ICT) in fraud detection and prevention in Nigeria banking industry.
iii. To reveal the usefulness and consequences of (ICT) to the Nigeria banking system.
iv. To offer useful recommendation based on the findings on how best to prevent the occurrence of fraud through an effective information and communication technology.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The modern world scientific observations and investigations helps us to eliminate greater risk of uncertainties in this research. There are two (2) major school of thought with three (3) alternatives hypothesis as a trend to solution of this research problem.
1. H0: The present ICT in the Nigerian banking industry
is not effective in fraud detection and prevention.
Hi: The present ICT in the Nigerian banking industry
is effective in fraud detection and prevention.
2. H0: The present ICT does not proffer possible solution to defects and loopholes in the Nigeria Banking Industry.
Hi: The present ICT proffer possible solution to defects and loopholes in the Nigeria Banking Industry.
3. H0 The present ICT does not prevent the occurrence of fraud in Nigeria banking industries.
Hi The present ICT does not prevent the occurrence of
fraud in Nigeria banking industries.
1.5 Research Questions
In this sub-section, there need to state out research questions to be used in the study of problems. The questions are:
1. How regular does the ICT check the defects or loopholes in the banking system?
2. To what extent does fraud occurs in Nigeria banking industries?
3. To what extent has ICT helped in fraud detection and prevention in banking system.
4. How regular does the ICT measures the relevance and appropriateness of the adopted control in preventing fraud?
1.6 Significance of the Study
When we talk of significance, we mean the benefits to be derived in researching the case in completion of this study, the following significance will be reasonable.
- The result of this study would help to expose the level of fraud in Nigeria commercial banks.
- The result of this study would expose the fraudulent staff thereby preventing fraud in the institution.
- The outcome of this study would help the financial institution especially First Bank to see the extent of occurrence of fraud in the bank.
- The result would also help the bank to access their overall performance through internal control check.
- Students carrying out research in similar area can make use of the work.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to the role of ICT in fraud detection in the Nigeria banking industry. The study is limited based on the fact that there is no time, money and material resource to see to the whole financial institution in Nigeria.
The study is limited to First Bank, Union Bank, Zenith bank and the finding may not reflect the situation in the whole country but at large, what happen in First bank, Union and Zenith Bank in Anambra can be said to apply to other financial institutions.
The major part of this limitation is as a result of secrecy of banks in Nigeria. Banks in Nigeria do not let out information to people outsider easily especially researcher. This is because other people can make reference to the research work and use the information against the bank.
Another limitation of this research work is the sample size required. To reach the quality of the people required for the study took quite and of course when some were reached, they turned out to be interested to help out for want of time may not help.
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