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The study investigated the influence of smart phones and social networking sites on the academic performance of secondary school students in Amwuwo-Odofin local government area of Lagos State. Thedescriptive research design was adopted for this study. Three (3) public secondary schools were selected from the list of Public Schools in Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area of Lagos State using the Simple Random Sampling Technique. Two hundred (200) students were selected using stratified Random Sample Technique. The research instrument used was a four point modified Rennis Likert Rating Scale Questionnaire type. Five research questions were raised and five hypotheses were formulated. Data analyses was done using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages to answer research questions while the hypotheses formulated were tested using chii-square and t-test - statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. All stated null hypotheses were rejected. The ' study concluded that smart phones has significant influence on student's academic performance, social networking sites has significant influence on student's academic performance, there was significant difference on the effect of smart phones and social networking sites on academic performance. Also, there was significant difference between smart phones usage by male students and female students. Based on the findings, recommendations were made that there is the need for schools counsellor to access the existing use of smart phones by students in classroom and find a way to stop the usage in the classroom.
1.1 Background of the study
The world is a comprehensive cyber community that has been connected by a network of wired and wireless devices through the World Wide Web (WWW). Today most of us have secured a room in cyber space by having email accounts, doing online transaction and through e-learning.
Social networking sites are the main application under the umbrella of social media, which comes with the Web 2.0 era. Social media is the fastest growing web application in the 21st century.
Technology addiction problem has been treated important, especially in the education field of secondary schools, because adolescent is more vulnerable to the addiction. However, smart phones addiction has become a more serious problem recently.
Smart phones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years and already have conquered the market. Smart phones with their mini keyboards are not just phones, but have computer functions as email, calendar and address book and office programs for reading and editing. The multimedia phone features such as camera, video, sound recordings or podcasting is advanced and can compete with specialized equipment.
With the growing of gadgets embedded in modern mobile phones (particularly 3G and 4G phones) such as MP3,Internet and the decrease in the size and price of such devices, mobile phones has become omnipresent. The mobile phone is an anytime and anywhere tool, boosting the tendency to the things discretely as well as openly. The fact is that with the use Of cell phones, people sometimes lose the capacity to manage the boundaries between appropriate and inappropriate usage. (Ling. 1997)
In this current technology, the use of social networking sites(such as Face book, twitter, WhatsApp, Skype, Instagram, e.t,.c) has become a common place for this generation of college students (Hanson, Drumheller, Mallard, Mckee & Schlegel,2011). Connecting to these social networking sites has become easier and more convenient with the increased popularity of wireless technology. This has contributed to an increase of more than one billion people logging on to these sites daily. Young adults, 18_29 years old, are the most active user of wireless technology, 81%are active users (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith & Zickuhr, 2010). The demand for social networking sites among college students is significant.92% of all under graduates students are members of social media (Junco & Cotton, 2012). As college students are increasingly adopting social media, it is important for faculty and administrators in higher education institutions to understand how this is influencing student's academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The invention of technology such as mobile phones has no doubt brought about immense positive progress to human societies, but this invention equally brought about in its wake some observed attitudinal problems among secondary schools students. However, this is not to say that these problems are solely caused by the usage of these phones as there are other causes, but that the attitudes of the users and the modes of the usage are significantly the contributing factors especially in the 21st century. Scholars have identified the problems associated with the phone usage and time (Junco, Merco and Salter, 2010_Wei and Lo, 2006), the attachment to phones (Gaser, 2006), in the face of this, therefore, there is the need to establish the link between these observations and academic performance. In analyzing the problem of these internet phones, and in order to synchronize and have a clearer understanding of the problem as it is related- to this study, it must be borne in mind that other varying platforms of distractions towards the academic performance of the secondary school students are also implicated, such as the computer usages, which generate internet social networking sites, and the visual display devices for relaxation such as televisions.
In addition to this, there is high tendency of students to interact with their phone in the class in the course of lectures, either to respond to received messages, or to browse the internet. These, no doubt, take a heavy toll on the level of concentration devoted to the lectures. Even while outside the classroom environment, most students who use internet enabled phones devotes much time interacting with their phones by chatting on Twitter 2go, Facebook, Instant messages (Bbm, Yahoo messenger). Consequently, the time that ought to have been devoted to study and other useful academic endeavours are thus frittered away.
In the light of this problem and in locating the root cause of the problems posed by the relationship between the students use of internet phones on their academic performance, it is pertinent and imperative to carry out a study of this kind,
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to determine the influence of smart phones and social networking sites on the academic performance of secondary schools students and they are stated below
i. To determine the influence of smart phones on academic performance of school students.
ii. To ascertain the influence of social networks on the academic performance of students.
iii. To determine the influence of social networks on student study habit.
iv. To ascertain the influence of smart phones on students level of concentration in class.
v. To determine the influence of social networks on students access to learning materials.
i. To what extent does smart phones influence academic performance of students?
ii. To what extent does social networks influence students' academic performance?
iii. To what degree does social networks influence study habits?
iv. To' what extent does smart phones influence students' level of concentration in class?
v. To what extent does social networks influence students' access to learning materials?
The following null hypothesis were tested in the study"
i. There is no significant influence between smartphones and students academic performance.
ii. There is no significant influence between social networks and academic performance of students.
iii. There is no significant influence between social networks and study habits of students.
iv. There is no significant influence between smart phones and concentration level of students in class.
v. There is no significant influence between social networks and students' access to learning materials.
1.6 Significance of the Study
As said earlier, this study is about the influence of smart phones usage and social networking sites on academic performance of secondary school students. This study will be useful to students, parents, teachers, school administrator and school counselor. The students as the receiver of knowledge in the school will understand the ways by which usage of smart phones can affect their learning performance.
Teachers in schools will find these work useful as it will provide the rationale for ensuring that students are been told how and when to use smart phones and the ways they can benefit from social sites.
The school administrator will see this work as one that can be relied on and as such come up with rules that can put the commendation of this study into action.
The counselor as a professional will apply knowledge gain from this work by putting students through the use of smart phones and social networking sites, thereby assisting them to perform well in their studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study will be limited to Senior Secondary Schools in Educational Districts (iv) of Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. It is worthy to note that smart phones and social networking sites will be treated as two separate variables affecting academic performance.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
i. Smart Phone: any mobile communication device capable of accessing the Internet.
ii. Social networking sites or Social media: a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0and that allows the creation and exchange of user generated context (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).
iii. BYOD (Bring Your Own Device): trend of using iPads, iPhones, Andriod phones, and sometimes even their own laptops, and expecting to use this to gain access to corporate educational data(Miller, 2012).
iv. Mobile Learning: use of mobile or wireless devices for the purpose of learning while on the move or learning that takes advantage of mobile technologies.
v. Student: a person who studies at a school, college or university.
vi. Internet: is a collection of computers and computer networks located all over the world, all of which share information by agreed upon protocols.
vii. Social Networking Site: this is an online site that focuses on facilitating the building of social -networks or social relations among people who share activities, interests, background thus allowing them share ideas, events among themselves.
viii. Academic Performance: refers -to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers.
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