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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
High level integration of information technology into aspects of modern life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems. There was also a need to transform information about vehicles between the reality and information systems. This can be achieved by special intelligent equipment which is able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect it into conceptual resources. Because of this, various recognition techniques have been developed and car plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security applications, such as parking, access and border control, or tracking of stolen cars.
Motor vehicle plate registration is the registration of a motor vehicle with a government authority, either compulsory or otherwise. The purpose of motor vehicle registration is to establish a link between a vehicle and an owner or user of the vehicle. This link might be used for taxation or crime detection purposes. While almost all motor vehicles are uniquely identified by a vehicle identification number, only registered vehicles display a vehicle registration plate and carry a vehicle registration certificate. Motor vehicle registration is different from motor vehicle licensing and roadworthiness certification. Motor vehicles may also be registered with property owners or managers to gain benefits. For example, organization with parking facilities may require registration of a vehicle with them to allow authorized users to park there.
A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies the vehicle within the issuing region's database. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person also varies by issuing agency. Depending on the country, the vehicle registration plate may be called a license plate, tag, car plate or number. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, which is usually attached to the rear of the vehicle. National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle; such as the make, model, color, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, Vehicle Identification (Chassis) Number, and the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper.
The term access control refers to the practice of restricting entrance to a property, a building, or a room to authorized persons. Physical access control can be achieved by a human (a guard, bouncer, or receptionist) through mechanical means such as locks and keys, or through technological means such as access control systems.
In the modern days, significant development in technology have been made, car plate numbers can be recognize from a reasonable distance by the use of cameras which captures images of the plate number and run the information through a data base for recognition. This is made possible by creating software that run on personal computer based, non-specialist hardware and other means.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In developed countries, high measures have been put in place to control the rate at which unknown vehicles gain access into restricted areas. Auto theft has also been a challenging issue over the years. Security agencies are increasingly adopting the use of cameras to capture images from car plate number in which the data or information captured is run through a data base for recognition. This is easy to achieve because such countries provide themselves with surveillance cameras in strategic points, e.g street lights, traffic lights, government and private structures etc.
In developing countries, where there are limited or no resource to achieve an optical recognition system, yet it can still be achieved pending when the required materials or equipment is provided.
In Nigerian Defence Academy, implementing a system where vehicles are recognize by registering a car plate number into a data-base will go a long way helping the academy, security wise, in the sense that, cars that are not registered will not be allowed into the academy until they under-go proper security verification.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research work is to develop an application that will provide access control through computerized car plate recognition.
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To design a data base that will serve as repository for car plate numbers already registered within Nigerian Defence Academy.
2. To ensure quick collection of data about vehicles within the scope of study
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The proposed system will be of great advantage in controlling the rate at which un-authorized vehicles enter within the academy premises through the following ways.
1. Increase efficiency and performance; the difference between situation where by an officer on duty checks cars and then search the car before asking the driver questions in order to get details of who own the car and other related questions, will be seen as time consuming compared to when the plate number or information is manually entered into an onboard computer for verification. If such vehicle is recognized, there is no need for any question or waste of time, the car can be allowed to enter.
2. Enhance access control; the number of vehicles trying to enter the academy will be reduce, provided un-registered cars are not allow to by-pass the gate until they under-go serious verification which will in no way delay their advance.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
Every project is carried out to achieve a set of goals with some conditions keeping in mind that it should be easy to use, and user friendly. As the goal of this project is to develop an application that will provide access control through car plate registration, this system will be designed keeping in mind the conditions (easy to use and user friendly) stated above. The proposed project’s intended user is; the security personnel of Nigerian Defence academy.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE NEW SYSTEM
i. Instant searching through Identification’s Number verification
ii. Instant generating of driver details(Registration)
iii. It goes wide range online to all end users of the website
iv. It also supports intranet, which clients can also check for verifications’ staffs check update online
v. Security implementation systems are embedded to disallow unauthorized personnel from accessing the staff information.
The use of Standalone Web Portal Server Technology together with Public Address subscribes from the Internet Service Provider (ISP) will provide access online widely online for the end users as well as the approach can be on a Local Area Network for multiple access users.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Optical character recognition (OCR): This is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used as a form of data entry from printed paper data records. It is a common method of digitizing printed texts so that it can be electronically edited, searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as machine translation, text-to-speech, key data and text mining. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision.
ii. Automatic Car Plate Recognition (ACPR): This is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates. They can use existing closed-circuit television or road-rule enforcement cameras, or ones specifically designed for the task.
iii. Surveillance: This is the monitoring of the behaviour, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras), or interception of electronically transmitted information using no, low or high technology methods.
iv. Car Plate: A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies the vehicle within the issuing region's database.
v. Automation: This is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Most processes today have been completely automated. The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision.
vi. Access Control: In the fields of physical security and information security, access control is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource. The act of accessing may mean consuming, entering, or using. Permission to access a resource is called authorization. Locks and login credentials are two analogous mechanisms of access control.
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