IMPACT OF COMPUTER EDUCATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

IMPACT OF COMPUTER EDUCATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                           ii

Declaration                                                                                                           iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                        v

Table of contents                                                                                        vi

Abstract                                                                                                      ix

CHAPTER ONE:         INTRODUCTION

Background of the study                                                                                      1

Statement of the problem                                                                                     12

Purpose of the study                                                                                  13

Significance of the study                                                                             13

Research questions                                                                                               15

Scope of the study                                                                                      15

CHAPTER TWO:        REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Concept of computer education                                                                           16

History of computer education in Nigeria                                                  17

Objectives of computer education                                                              19

Some teaching methods in education                                                                   20

The need for computer education in Nigeria secondary schools                           23

The role of the teachers in using computer for instruction                                   26

Factors affecting the teaching of computer science                                               28

Reasons for adoption of computer education in Schools                                     41

Obstacles to the use of Computer Education in secondary schools in Nigeria     49

Summary of related literature                                                                     56

CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design                                                                                         59

Area of the study                                                                                        59

Population of the study                                                                              60

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                              60

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                            60

Validation of the Instrument                                                                      61

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       61

Method for Data Collection                                                                        61

Method of Data Analysis                                                                           61     

CHAPTER FOUR:       DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND                                          DISCUSSION

Introduction                                                                                                63

Data presentation and analysis                                                                            63

Major Findings                                                                                           68

Discussion                                                                                                  68

CHAPTER FIVE:        SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND                                                                            RECOMMENDATION

Introduction                                                                                                         74

Summary                                                                                                    74

Conclusion                                                                                                 75

Implication of findings                                                                               75

Recommendations of the study                                                                            76

Limitation                                                                                                   77

Suggestion for further study                                                                       77

References                                                                                                  78

Appendix                                                                                                   78


ABSTRACT

The study sought to examine the impact of computer education in teaching and learning in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna North Local government area of Kaduna State. The specific purposes of the study were to examine the impact of computer Education in junior secondary schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria, identify the computer literacy level of teachers and students in the junior secondary schools, Investigate various reasons for teachers using computers in teaching and learning in JSS and to identify strategies on how to improve the use of computer education in teaching and learning in JSS. Four research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 148 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coeffiecient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that  Computer Education has a positive impact in teaching and learning in junior secondary schools in Kaduna north local government area of Kaduna state, Level of literacy of the teachers in junior secondary schools in Kaduna north local government area of Kaduna state is low, and Computer helps to develop their intellectual ability, increase student ability to innovate and helps to develop their creative ability and students had great interests desire and curiosity to learn computer. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that teachers should be trained and retrained in ICT as their level of literacy in ICT is low, Computers should be provided to the students since it increases their learning ability, students should be encourage to learn computer education. And the state government should provide necessary farm tools and machineries that will help make the job of extension agents effective, the extension workers should take advantage of the farmers good cooperation and reciprocate with good attitudes and dedication to their job among others.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Technical education is one of the ingredients needed for the development of any nation Bilsel(1995). Vocational education is education that prepares people for specific trades, crafts and careers at various levels from a trade, a craft technician, or a professional position in engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, pharmacy, law etc (www.wikipedia.org). Technical education is the academic and vocational preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology (Encyclopedia Britannica). It emphasizes the understanding and practical application of basic principles of science and mathematics, rather than the attainment of proficiency in manual skills that is properly the concern of vocational education. Technical education is distinct from professional education, which places major emphasis upon the theories, understanding, and principles of a wide body of subject matter designed to equip the graduate to practice authoritatively in such fields as science, engineering, law, or medicine. Technical occupations are vital in a wide range of fields, including agriculture, business administration, computers and data processing, education, environmental and resource management, graphic arts and industrial design, health and medicine; technical education curricula are correspondingly specialized over a broad range. 

Technical education can also be seen as the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge that would facilitate occupational efficiency required performance and skill oriented knowledge. Such an instructional situation can be created through the utilization of computer.

The blue-print on education (1981, 2004) asserted that the aims and objectives of technical and vocational education are to:

  • provide trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technical levels; 
  • provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development; 
  • give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self-reliant economically; 
  • provide people who can apply scientific knowledge to the improvement and solution of environmental problems for the use and convenience of man; 
  • enable our young men and women to have an intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology; 
  • give an introduction to professional studies in engineering and other technologies.

To think that computers have suddenly arrived on the scene would be wrong, although it is true that their number and use have greatly increased during recent years. Calculators have been in use for a very long time, and even in the days of the old Navigators and Astronomers, there was a need for some sort of calculating instruments to receive the human brain of work. The first mechanical calculator was produced by Blaise in 1862. Others tried to improve on it but until the nineteenth century no real progress was made. In 1901 a French man named Jacquard invented a punched card system for controlling the tread on as weaving looms. Charles followed in 1933 with his analytical engine, using punched cards, but the calculating machinery was operated by electromagnetic means. It was introduced in 1889 and was generally used in a highly developed form, right up to the wide spread introduction of electronic computer in 1950s.

The twenty- first century is already turning out to be the century of the computer age. The computer revolution that started after the Second World War is now developing exponentially and computers are beginning to influence and take over nearly every aspect of our lives. In a rapidly changing world, basic education is essential for an individual to be able to access and apply information. The Economic Commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and use information is no longer a luxury, but a necessity for development.

Unfortunately, many developing countries, especially in Africa, are caught lagging in the use of computer compared to other developed countries(Adomi and Kpagbani 2010 in Aduwa and Iyamu 2005).The ability to use computers effectively has become an essential part of everyone’s education. Skills such as book keeping, clerical and administrative work, stocktaking, and so forth, now constitute a set of computerized practices that form the core computer skills package: spreadsheets word processors, and database (Adomi and Kpagbani 2010 in Reffel and Whitworth 2012).

The demand for computer literacy is increasing in Nigeria, because employees realize that computers facilities can enhance efficiency. On the other hand, employees have also become computer literates. The Federal Government of Nigeria introduced computer education into the nation’s Junior Secondary School system in 1988 through the policy enactment of the National Computer Policy.

The general objectives of the policy include:

1.       Bring about a computer literate society by the mid – 1990s

2.       Enable present school children to appreciate and use the life in future various aspects of life and in future employment.

According to the National Computer Policy Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), the first objective is to ensure that the general populace appreciates the impact of computer education on packages, understand the structure and operation of computers and their history, and to appreciate the economic, social and psychological impact of the computer (Jegede and Owelabi 2003).

The modalities and the strategies for achieving the stated objectives include:

1.       Training teachers and associated personnel.

2.       Hardware facilities.

3.       Curriculum development.

4.       Maintenance of hardware and peripherals.(Jegede and Owelabi2003).

Computer education was initially limited to Federal Unity schools until few years ago when it was introduced to states’ government school system. Presently Computer Studies is offered as a core subject in Basic School Certificate for those in junior secondary school level in Kaduna State Nigeria. Yet problems like Lack of qualified teachers to teach computer education; Lack of computers; Lack of electricity; Computers are still expensive; Broken down computers are still bedevillling the system.

Many of the routine activities in today’s society are performed by computers. For example when we go for holidays our plane seats are often reserved by computers, the traffic in some major cities is to a degree controlled by computers, the egg which you might have had for breakfast may have been laid by a chicken whose life history is on record on a computer file, many of the bills we pay (rate, gas, electricity, telephone e.t.c) are calculated and printed by a computer. Why? How?

The degree of sophistication in numeral through the use of computer science education has become pronounced loudly all over the world. Kaduna State Government cannot afford to ignore the role which computer science education achieved in scientific and technological advancement and the learning process of junior secondary schools. Hence the introduction of computer education in Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools cannot be over emphasized both in government and private sectors.

Computers are used to forecast the weather, to operate machines, to cut shapes out of sheet metal, and even to guide the students to learn easily without confusion. Computer can set, print newspaper and books. Computer can be used to help in diagnosing disease and to find out whether a hospital bed is available for a particular patient. Computers are used to clarify obscured documents in archives and elusive criminals on the run. Schools or Institution use them for guide, the students for learning process and saving the students file and students documents.

According to Uma (1995), In order to involve the youth in solving the problem of computer, computer was introduced to Junior Secondary Schools. Good as this may be many problems have bedeviled computer education in Nigerian junior secondary schools and the country educational system at large. The root of these problems can be traced among others to the Nigerian educational system.

The Nigerian education system is not without a number of challenges that have resulted from different political systems, population growth, international and national decrees and a new socio-economic dispensation.

The computer education in Nigerian junior secondary schools have been bedeviled with its own peculiar problems. According to (World Bank, 2000 as cited by Ololube, Ubogu & Ossai, 2007) empirical studies have indicated that even teachers who have competence in the use of computers do not integrate them in their teaching. Problems of quality and lack of resources are compounded by the new realities faced by schools battle to cope with every increasing student’s numbers.

Pelgrum (2001) opine that obstacles for computer education implementation include the following: Insufficient number of computers, teachers’ lack of computer knowledge/skills, difficult to integrate computer to instruction, scheduling computer time, insufficient peripherals, not enough copies of software, insufficient teacher time, not enough simultaneous access, not enough supervision staff and lack of technical assistance. Similarly, Lewis and Smith (2002) summarized these barriers as limited equipment, inadequate skills, minimal support, time constraints and the teacher’s own lack of interest or knowledge about computer. Kwacha (2007) also noted that the most common problems associated with the effective implementation of computer education are lack of qualified computer teachers, cost of equipment, management attitudes, inconsistent electric power supply, inadequate telephone lines, particularly in rural areas and non inclusion of computer education programmes in teacher’s training curricula and at the basic levels of education.

Also the researchers observed that if the students are not well grounded in subjects like English and mathematics it is of course a challenge for the teaching and learning of computer science education in our junior secondary schools. Several different initiatives by government agencies and the private sectors to promote computer education have been implemented. The drawback to these programmes is generally sporadic and insufficient supply of electric power in the urban areas. 

The energy problem motivated the government to embrace the US$100 XO laptop computer project for Nigeria’s primary school children. The government has ordered one million of these laptops, which can be cranked and do not need external power supply, for the school children.

SchoolNet Nigeria is a non-profit organisation created to address the use of computer in Nigerian secondary schools with the support of several government ministries. SchoolNet Nigeria is a nonprofit organization of stakeholders in education committed to the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (Computer Educations) for enhancing teaching, learning and management processes in Nigerian schools. The evolution of SchoolNets continent wide is a strategy based on partnerships. These strategic partnerships are to enable SchoolNets draw on a wide range of resources from the public and private sectors and donor community, while ensuring the organization works within government policy and implementation frameworks.  
In the private sector, the main focus is to occupy the important role of Corporate Social Investment (CSI) implementation partners in the educational sector for private sector companies, ensuring the objectives and expectations of the partners are met in their CSI programmes while they focus on their areas of core business. SchoolNet Nigeria together with its pool of international SchoolNet partners has broad experience which arises from its implementation focus, and its proven ability to plan, negotiate, roll out and evaluate demanding projects.

SchoolNet Nigeria evolved from the concept proposal for a regional SchoolNet Africa Initiative was endorsed in 1999 at the Unit


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