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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A WEB BASED CRIME RECORDS INFORMATION SYSTEM
This study, design and implementation of web based crime records system, is centered on using web applications to enable an easy, secured and fast way reporting crime and complaints. It would produce durable crime records and avoidable lost of crime records. Structural database management system (DBMS) was used in its development in other to eliminate redundancy in the compilation, its friendliness in responding to the user exhibits and also its reliability and efficiency in tracking down offenders. Another important feature of this system was that it provides user with the facilities for having the hard copies or print out of any relevant document as well as the facilities to communication with the system. The traditional and age-old system of intelligence and criminal record maintenance has failed to live up to the requirements of the existing offence scenario. Manual processes neither provide accurate, reliable and comprehensive data round the clock nor does it help in trend prediction and decision support.
The challenges to National security in Nigeria are enormous. There is the issue of religious crisis in some states of the northern part of Nigeria, ritual killings and kidnappings in some states of the South east and south south, sectarian clashes in some states of the south west, bombings in Abuja and some states of the federation.
The aforementioned issues constitute a threat to national security, and if not curtailed, it might escalate to a greater proportion that might plunge the country into confusion. A system of providing the Nigerian Police with information regarding offenders and the various activities they had carried out in the recent and the past will go a long way in helping to checkmate offences and offenders; and this will also help in identifying new cases of offences and offenders within a given locality. Offenders Information System (OIS) will assist the police with useful information that will help in controlling (apprehend, prosecute, and sanction) offenders.
It has been acknowledged that the nearest we can get to the offence happenings or events is the record kept by the Police, of offence reported to them (James N., 2010a).
1.1 Background of the Study
is the most vital aspect of every society all over the globe irrespective of
the location. Conventionally the management of crime records and profile is in
our police stations are done manually by writing on paper, filing and
categorizing the collected data and storing them in a cabinet or shelves. This
method is slow and painstaking as retrieval of this data involves searching
through hundreds or thousands of files to retrieve a small piece of information
depending on the size of institution.
With the introduction of computers and Information System (IS), the process of collection and management of data which involved record keeping and profile management in police stations has been tremendously improved as the speed of data collecting and retrieval increased significantly thereby making data management is a major driving force in the ongoing Information Technology (IT) revolution. The records of citizens (complainant/defendant) collected serve many purposes and pass through many corporate processes. The records are so important that the police channel much resource to preserve the integrity of the records.
However, over the last few decades, there has been significant improvement in data storage, data access, data protection and data distribution where data storage was once at a high premium that a single CD-ROM can now store 500MB of data. Rumours has it next generation of CD-ROMs will store at least ten times that amount but there has been challenges in the last few years to the traditional data security and access philosophies. The lessons learnt over the years show that the continuing importance of data and the increase in citizens’ records and profile no matter how it is accessed or packaged will undoubtedly play a central role in the health and competitiveness of police in the future, (Alter, 2002).
The history of information systems coincides with the history of computer science that began long before the modern discipline of computer science emerged in the twentieth century. Regarding the circulation of information and ideas, numerous legacy information systems still exist today that are continuously updated to promote ethnographic approaches, to ensure data integrity, and to improve the social effectiveness and efficiency of the whole process.
Before the concept of information systems was created, computer scientists were just programmers creating applications for science and math calculations. As computer usage evolved in fields of business and data management, software applications were needed to process nonscientific data.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Various problems are encountered in the manual system of operations in any organization, so it is in the web based crime record and information system. Some of the problems encountered are:
i. Generating a crime filing number for each of the crime has been cumbersome because it is not easy to trace the file number of the last recorded crime and this has led to duplication crime File Numbers.
Accuracy about dates of filling various components of the crime is not readily
available making referencing them very cumbersome.
iii. Making references to existing Criminal cases is difficult because of the manual mode of documentation.
1.3 Aim/Objective of the Study
The aim of this study is to design and implement of a web based crime record and information system for organization.
i. To help in the Reduction of redundancies and inconsistencies.
ii. To ensure user defined rules to ensure the integrity of data.
iii. To enable data sharing across all applications.
iv. To ensures data access authorization.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Implementation of web based crime records information system by the Nigerian police will help the police and the masses to get useful information on individuals with crime records. The system developed will among other things:
a. Maintain a database of all crime records
b. Enable a quick search on the database to retrieve crime information
c. Enable Nigerian police to track previous crimes committed by a suspect
d. Make crime control easier for the police.
1.5 Scope of the Study
Basically, any crime record system as an integral part of the Crime Justice Information System consists of three major sections, they are:
a) The Offence Identification Division
b) The Magistrate Segment, and
c) The prisons.
However, because of lack of time, funding and the scope of the system, the research work was limited to the development and implementation of software–base on crime record information system that will automate the processes involved in tracking down offenders by the Nigerian Police and the design will focus on offenders, suspects and complainants information stored in a database.
1.6 Organization of the Study
The research work is organized as follows;-
Chapter one introduces the project; the background of the project is also discussed. The objectives of the project, its significance, scope, and constraints are pointed out.
A brief history of the Nigerian police and review of literature on Offence tracking System are subject matter of Chapter two.
Chapter three discusses system analysis and design. It deals with detailed investigation and analysis of the existing system and problem identification.
Chapter four covers the system implementation, testing and integration.
Chapter five was the summary of findings, limitations of the project, recommendations, bill of engineering measurement and evaluation conclusion, bibliography, appendix A and Appendix B of the project. [
1.7 Definition of Terms
Criminalization: One can view criminalization as a procedure deployed by society as a pre-emptive, harm-reduction device, using the threat of punishment as a deterrent to anyone proposing to engage in the behavior causing harm.
FIIB: Federal Investigation and Intelligence Bureau
IGP: Inspector General of Police
DIG: Deputy Inspector General
FCID: Force Criminal Investigation Department (FCID) is the highest investigation arm of the Nigeria Police NPF.
HTML Code: – HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.
Markup language: – A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.
Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.
extension: – A file extension is the suffix at the end of a
filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed
to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at
least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is
usually three characters in length.
TCP/IP: – This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of “more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronymthat describes the operations involved.
Text File: – A text file is a computerfile that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.
Hyper Link:-A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.
WWW: – acronym for World Wide Web.
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