DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CASE STUDY NIGERIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ATTENDANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CASE STUDY NIGERIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY

It is well known fact that virtually all organizations whether commercial or educational need to maintain a properly record the attendance of its employees or students for effective functioning, planning, and management of the organization. In most academic institutions in developing countries, attendance is usually taken manually using paper sheets and the old file system approach by calling students name. According to (Tabassam, et al., 2009) it becomes cumbersome for the management to regularly update the records and manually calculate the percentage of classes attended for the purpose of examinations and subsequent results processing. Lack of adequate attendance record keeping has indeed degenerated to a greater level most especially in Nigerian institutions.

Many academic institutions are beginning to update their standards by issuing students with identification cards that are equipped with barcodes, ID chips, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and so on (Andrew, 2011). This decision opens up a window to implement barcode identification systems in classrooms as a management tool to solve many of the problems faced by lecturers and the institutions’ management in classroom attendance management. Due to the inefficiency of traditional methods of attendance record keeping, a more secure and accurate barcode technology model is needed to be formulated and implemented.

Barcode Identification is one of the automatic identification technologies more in vogue nowadays. A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation that contain data relating to the object in which it is attached. Initially barcodes were systematically use to represent data by changing the widths and spacing of parallel lines, and this kind of pattern is referred to as linear or one dimensional (1D). Later they emerge into rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions (2D).

Although 2D systems use difference variation of symbols, they are also referred to as barcodes as well. Barcodes originally were recognized by special optical scanners called barcode readers. Since their inception, barcodes were credited to Joseph Woodland (Charles, 2001), the concept of barcodes have grown from the initial linear barcodes “one dimensional” to the Matrix code “two dimensional” and this invention have been applied to many areas of life which include supermarkets, pharmacies, warehouses, libraries, and shopping centres.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The existing system is a manual entry for the students. Here the attendance will be recorded in hand written registers. It usually is a tedious job to maintain the records for the users. The retrieval of the information is not as easy as the records are maintained in the hand written registers.

In the present attendance registration system, teachers have to either ask the students to write down their names on a piece of paper, or they have to provide a list of enrolled students and ask them to mark their names. This means that excessive manual efforts go into the process of classroom attendance registrations. After the data has been collected, it takes even more time and efforts to transfer the data onto other systems for data analyses. One of the major flaws of the present system is the fact that, attendance registration information is not properly used to help improve course timetables and classroom bookings. Another important piece of information which the present system lacks is the time of individual attendance records. For example, a question of whether the majority of students were present at the beginning of a class or at later times could help in improving classroom related research.

Since collecting attendance data in many institutions has not been computerized, the proposal of transforming the present system was alluring and decided to face the challenge and design a solution for it.

1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

This project work aim on reducing effort on paper work and save the time required to generate accurate results from the cadets’ attendance.

The specific objective of the study

i.To change from manual attendance of file to computerized system.

ii.Eliminate duplicate data entry and errors in time and attendance entries.

iii.Eliminate paperwork and save time.

iv.Automatic calculation of attendance.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The purpose of developing attendance management system is to computerized the tradition way of taking attendance. Another purpose for developing this software is to generate the report automatically at the end of the session or in the between of the session

1.5       SCOPE OF STUDY

The project scope of this project is to develop a hybrid student attendance management system through barcode scanning. In this project, mobile-based student attendance system will be developed for a purpose just to obtain the barcodes of cadets who attend the class. In addition, web-based student attendance system will be developed for purposes to display the attendance status/condition of every cadet, generate reports related to the student attendance, and etc. Besides that, proper planning will be carry on in order to perform this project by using the project methodology that had been chosen.

Next, the cadet attendance management system will only developed for managing the student attendance status and allow lecturers/faculty staffs as well as instructors to easily analyse the information regarding the cadet attendance. In other words, it means that this attendance system will only cover the functions related to cadet attendance but not any others function related to another thing. So at the end of the project, a system will be developed which used for record the attendance of cadets more efficiently and effectively through the barcode scanning.

1.6       LIMITATION OF STUDY

The main limitations of this research work where time and financial constraint.

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

a.COMPUTER: A computer can be finely defined as an automatic electronic machine, that can accept raw fact or data through an input device like the keyboard or mouse: stores , processes the data in the system unit using a particular program and finally supplying the result of information through an output device such as monitor in the form of pictures or texts on the screen called the soft copy or a printer in form of printed paper called the hardcopy.

b.BARCODE: A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation that contain data relating to the object in which it is attached.

c.INFORMATION: These are data that has been processed and is meaningful to the end user.

d.COMPUTER-BASED: It is also referred to as computerized. It is the art of using computer system to carry out task.

e.ATTENDANCE: This is an act or fact of attending (being present at) work or institution. Also, attendance is used to define the number of person present at a particular day of an event or an institution.

f.SYSTEM: A system is a group of inter-related components working together towards a common goal by accepting input and producing output in an organised transformation process. It is also an organised collection of people; machine and method required to accomplish a set of specific functions.

g.DATABASE: Are not merely collections of files, rather the database is a centre source of data meant to be shared by many users for a variety of applications.


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