DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD (EBB)

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD (EBB)

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ABSTRACT
With the advent of technology, most tasks undertaken by man have now been overtaken by semi-conductor devices applicable in the areas of communication industry.
In industrial, commercial and recreational establishment, there is always the need to reach the public. The faster this is done, the better.
In this project: design and construction of an Electronic Bill Board (EBB), which is a display device that converts electrical signals transmitted from electronic devices into optical signals using Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). 
The EBB saves time, gives better visual effects and attraction, where it is used in adverts and other forms of attractive and urgent information dissemination. 
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page 
Certification 
Dedication
Acknowledgment
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 A brief on EBB
1.2.1 What is EBB?
1.2.2 Programmed pattern, programmed output sequence (PPPOS) EBB.
1.2.3 Adjustable Sequence, Adjustable Patters (ASAP) EBB.
1.3 Objectives/Purpose/Need of the System

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introductions
2.2 The Concept of Computer System as Relating To the EBB.
2.3 Relevance of Digital over Manual

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 THE TEXT DISPLAYED BY THE SYSTEM
3.2 The Sketch of the System
3.3 Design Considerations
3.4 Functional Blocks
3.4.1 The Power Supply Functional Unit (PSU)
3.4.2 Micro-Processing Unit (MPU) 
3.4.3 The Circuit Display Inter-Face
3.4.4 The Massage /Letter Spelling Display Unit
3.5 Display Pattern
3.6 Measures for Data Collection

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 MAIN APPARATUS USED (WITH THE DIAGRAMS)
4.1.1 Microprocessor
4.1.2 Decoder
4.1.3 Crystal Oscillator
4.1.4 Voltage Regulator
4.1.5 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDS)
4.1.6 Transistors
4.1.7 Resistors
4.1.8 Capacitors 
4.1.9 Transformer
4.1.10 Diodes
4.1.11 Vero board 
4.1.12 Jumper wire
4.2 System Circuitry design
4.3 Principle of Operation/System Analysis
4.4 LED Arrangement /Lighting 
4.5 Program Design and Implementation 
4.6 Flow Chart
4.7 Testing
4.8 Problems/Difficulties/Limitations Encountered 
4.9 Precautions

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 SUMMARIES
5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 References

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTIONS
Before the advent of civilization, the early man had developed ways of communicating with his fellow man by talking, but to reach a wider audience, he used gongs, smoke, gunshots etc, but later used arts of writing by using drawings to make his thoughts conveyed to the other person.
This was later succeeded by the use of words and symbols, alphabetically in writing which is handed from person to person or by mounting such writings on sign posts.
Formerly, it was written with chalk on a board or with pen on a small piece of paper and pasted, mostly in restaurants, cafes, supermarkets etc.
Later, this included the building of a rectangular board (sign posts) made of plastic and it’s perforated by the side from which texts are fixed to show on the front of the display board, as in a filling-station.
In some establishments like the fast food joints they used a big rectangular board which is designed by an artist to display maybe the prices of commodities. All these methods have been used in displaying even till today but historically, the display systems have been in the more upwards that is being improved and more sophisticated. 
Hence, these methods and ways, the sign posts have metamorphosed into the modern Electronic Bill Board (the EBB).
Communication can be defined as an observation of events, the analysis and interpretation of the observed information to the audience.
It is divided into;
i. digital communication and
ii. Telecommunication.
The EBB is under the digital communication

1.2 A BRIEF ON EBB.
1.2.1 Fig 1.1 BRANCHES OF COMMUNICATION 
WHAT IS THE EBB?
The Electronic Bill Board (EBB) as the name implies is an electronic display device for converting various electronics signals transmitted from electronic devices into optical signals using LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes). Their effect is easily recognized visually by unaided human eye.
Electronic Bill Boards are involved in transmitting data from a system circuit that can be sued in a variety of application both industrial and domestic.
Different types of flat panel EBB displays characterized by height, weight, small, depth with low voltage and current have been in the rise. 
Flat panel displays are implemented by means of the Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), Electrochemical Displays (ESCs), Plasma Display Panels (PDPs), etc. and special displays like the particle rotation type or electronic attraction type displays.
Despite the various methods used, problems is encountered in realizing an ideal bill board which characteristics including high intensity, high contrast, high response, large capacity, high resolution, full color flat screen, light weight, low voltage supply, low power consumption, lifetime reliability and low cost.

1.2.2 PROGRAMMED PATTERN, PROGRAMMED OUTPUT SEQUENCE (PPOS) EBB. 
The electronic bill board display can be grouped into two (2) main configurations and operational modes. The HITACHI Corporation of Japan have implemented the programmed pattern, programmed output sequence and secondly, that of the adjustable sequence (ASAP). The PPPOS EBB display a particular sequence of patterns, characters, texts etc. the arrangement of the control circuit that draws the display meets the diversifying display requirement of the media. 
They are made of large or small boards which show the same thing over and over again, and cannot be varied except the control circuit is redesigned, and the LEDs re-arranged from which the displayed pattern has derived in the first place.
The PPPOS EBB can be applied in information devices in places such as: - restaurants, hotels and sales outlets.
 Public house like cinema or open house.
 Entertainment and games/sports resorts.
 Direction guides and venue guides.
 Hazard or wearing signs especially in the health, safety and environment (HSE) department of industries.
Interestingly to note, the system under the project belongs to this configuration and operational modes that is, the programmed pattern, programmed output sequence (PPPOS) electronic bill board.

1.2.3 ADJUSTABLE SEQUENCE, ADJUSTABLE PATTERN (ASAP) EBBS. 
This configuration and operational mode is more versatile.
The ASAP EBB is much more interactive and adoptable to various display needs than that of the PPPOS option.
It is capable of changing display patterns from one form to another, changing the sequence of the display of characters, texts and even provide for dynamic input of data or instruction through some input devices such as the keyboard. They also have board containing photoelectric display devices arranged in a matrix rather than in a character derived information.
Lastly, since these days of solid-stated electronics, these reliable methods of digital display system has been designed or made available by using the microprocessor which is a single computer chip, and can be seen in such electronic gadgetry we've become accustomed to, as-microwave ovens, automobiles, keyboards, CD players, cell phones, security systems, time and attendance clocks etc.

1.3 OBJECTIVE /PURPOSE /NEED OF THE SYSTEM.
The need for the design and construction of an electronic bill board (EBB) is to develop an electronic display system capable of displaying messages in a formatted pattern.
To control the movement of messages in a predetermined direction and procedures such that the message seems to be moving on a particular axis.
To control or provide security in systems that does not need human intervention. To make people be aware of new development and educate them on various signs and the existence of a new establishment.
Also, because of the attractive display, it will encourage people to be reading sign posts

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