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1.1 Background of the study
Work life balance and employee’s satisfaction is an area of increasing importance to both employees and employers. Employees need it to balance work and non-work roles and employers require it to increase productively and reduce cost (Abbott & De Cieri, 2008). The drivers for WLB can be attributed to changes in the demographic distribution of the labour force, technological advancement and the 24/7 opening hour’s culture in Morden society (Beauregard & Henry, 2009; Kalliath & Brough, 2008). This study investigates the factors responsible for work life balance and job satisfaction level amongst the women employees working in banking sector. Employees are greatest resource of an organization. Attracting and retaining the right people is critical to the success of an organization. When it comes to human environment, it focuses on human aspects that influence an employee’s performance and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been defined as the degree to which employees have a positive & effective orientation towards employment by the organization. Work determines a person’s worth and place in society and it influences one’s psychological identity and sense of wellbeing. The term “work” is being used to paid work or employment. Work establishes one in the community of human kind. It links a person to others, advances the goals of culture, and gives purpose to one’s existence. Work is a purposeful human activity which is directed toward the satisfaction of human needs and desires. It is obvious that work needs to be satisfying the job for a mutual beneficial relationship between employee and employer. Job satisfaction creates innovative ideas among the employees. Individuals may become more loyal towards the organization. Employees will be more satisfied if they get what they expected with efficient work life balance. This study intend to investigate the factors affecting work life balance and job satisfaction level of women employees working in banking sector in Abuja. Logically it is the satisfied worker who shows the maximum effectiveness and efficiency in his work. While there is no consistent definition of work-life balance, there are some consistent themes which have emerged these include: employees achieving an acceptable balance between their work and personal lives, employers work initiative which would aid improve employees productivity providing a range of targeted work-life initiatives that enhance firm performance and not result into considerable increase in cost to the employers (De Cieri,Holmes, Abbott & Pettit, 2007; De Cieri & Bardoel, 2009).Every individual is an integral part of the family in particular and the society in general. In today’s business world, employee performance is key determinant in the achievement of organizational goals. As a result, organizations look for different ways of motivating their employees, in order for them to give their best to the organization. Employee performance is a focal point in any establishment. Every policy should be geared towards increasing the employee performance. For organizations to remain on top they should be able to improve their employee performance and monitor it. In a situation where this does not occur, they are liable to face several challenges which stands as a set back to the organization in the sector where they belong. Work life balance is a very important phenomenon that is of great concern to various employees in both private and public sector. It goes beyond prioritizing the work role and one’s personal life. It also affects the social, psychological, economical and mental well being of the individual. All these is been reflected in the output of the individual, which affects his or her performance in the work place on the long run. Work life balance has implication on employee attitudes, behaviours, wellbeing as well as organizational effectiveness (Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeanx and Brindley, 2005). The competition for market leadership in the banking sector, may lead to bank managers giving their employees excessive work load in order to meet up with their target. Employees try their best to be retained in the organization by putting in more time at work which may be at detriment of their personal life. All these may affect the upbringing of children, lead to broken and unhappy homes and poor social life. For the purposes of this study the definition of WLB proposed by Barrera (2007) would be adopted because it is broad and encompassing “Employers working constructively with their employees to put in place arrangements, which take into account the needs of the business as well as the non-work aspects of employees’ lives” (Barrera, 2007). The definition consist of both employees and employers who are both central to the subsequent use and successful implementation of WLB policies and practices and acknowledges that WLB can only be achieved as a joint effort between employers and employees. A review of the work-life literature reveals that WLB initiatives can be broadly divided into four dominant categories which include flexible working arrangement (home working, compressed hours); leave arrangement (Study leave, Parental leave); dependent care assistance (Child care arrangements and Crèche) and general services (Employment assistant programs) (De Cieri et al., 2005).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The working environment of Women in Abuja Nigeria is changing at incredible pace due to progressive reduction in trade barriers, modern innovation in technologies, globally interconnected market place, cut throat competition and business rivalry and changing family and population patterns. These factors bring out tense anxiety into the life of the women and then it is magnified many times if both the husband-wife work and they have children of growing age and old age parents. This constant worry can cause disorder on the psychological comfort of the women due to a feeling of diminished control over one's life and a hopeless perception that there is never enough time to have a sensible stability and balance in life. Apart from it there are a variety of factors that make women employee feel positive or negative about their job. It is against this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the factors that impairs work life balance and employee’s satisfaction of women in the banking sector in Abuja Nigeria.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to investigate the work life balance and employees satisfaction of women in the banking sector; but to aid the completion of specific objective;
i) To ascertain the effect of marital stress on the job satisfaction and work life of a female banker
ii) To investigate if there is any relationship between work life balance and job satisfaction
iii) To evaluate the effect of remuneration on employees satisfaction
iv) To ascertain if there is a synergy between work life and personal life of the female bankers
v) To ascertain if there are possible ways of improving work life balance and employee satisfaction
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To aid the completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated by the researcher
i) Does marital stress has any effect on the job satisfaction and work life of a female banker?
ii) Is there any relationship between work life balance and job satisfaction of female bankers in Abuja?
iii) Is there any effect of remuneration on employee’s job satisfaction?
iv) Is there any synergy between work life and personal life of the female bankers?
v) Are there possible ways of improving work life balance and employee satisfaction among female bankers in Abuja metropolis?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated:
H0:marital stress does not have any effect on job satisfaction and work life of female bankers in Abuja metropolis
H1:marital stress does have effect on job satisfaction and work life of female bankers in Abuja metropolis
H02:there is no significant relationship between work life balance and job satisfaction of female bankers in Abuja metropolis
H2:there is a significant relationship between work life balance and job satisfaction of female bankers in Abuja metropolis
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is significant to both the management (employers) and the labour (employees). Secondly a close look at the work carried out will reveal a significant effect of work life balance and employees satisfaction. More so, the research work will serve the role of shaping the organizational policies on human resources (personnel) for the overall attainment of the set objectives. It is only when the human resources is adequately qualified for the job to be performed that we can hope that the biological resources can be effectively allocated and usefully utilized in the most optimum manner. If personnel administration is to be successful, management must give it sincere support in order to sustain organizational growth. The practical relevance of this study lives in the fact that no organization can achieve its set objectives without competent employees. Hence the issue of work life balances and employee satisfaction becomes paramount.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers work life balance and employee satisfaction, with emphasis on selected female bankers in Abuja metropolis. In the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected banks makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning employee’s satisfaction.
1.8 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Work life balance and employee satisfaction of female bankers in Abuja are propel by many factors beyond the interface, most female bankers adore their job but there is always a dichotomy between job satisfaction and private or marital life which in most time is at war with one another. This is why in most cases the banks try to place an embargo on number of years that a female employee should work before marriage in most cases, In order to overcome this barrier the banks prefer single ladies to married once because of the time and other factors that the job requires.
As part of my requirement for the award of masters of science degree (M.SC) in business administration, this study is carried out to ascertain the impact of work life balance and employee satisfaction among female bankers in Abuja Nigeria.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
EC is defined as the employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization. Meyer and Allen pegged AC as the "desire" component of organizationalcommitment.
Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways.
Work life balance
Work–life balance is a concept including the proper prioritization between work (career and ambition) and lifestyle (health, pleasure, leisure, family). The work–leisure dichotomy was invented in the mid-1800s
Are females who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or as a member of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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