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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Globally, the link between migration and development has remained a controversial subject under vigorous academic debate. Therefore, the process of people migrating to other areas in search of a better life is not a novel one. What has however gained currency is the increasing voluntary movement in quest of better quality of life by low-skill and low-wage workers as well as high-skill and high-wage workers from less developed rural areas to more developed urban areas, especially among the poor in the developing countries.
Migration is a dynamic component of population with reference to movement of people from one geographical area to another.
Migration can be classified into the following; i) Rural – rural migration
ii) Rural – urban migration iii) Urban – urban migration iv) Urban – rural migration.
But attention will be focused here on rapid urbanization process because this has caused great pressure on the existing infrastructure consequently.
This has however led to a deplorable living condition, unemployment and congestion of the urban centers.
The rationalization of infrastructure has become the order of the day and unemployment problem among the people in our society.
Nigeria is a developing country; in fact, she is at the threshold of being a developed nation. On this note it is wise to be acquainted with the meaning of the world “migration”.
Migration according to Udo (1980) defined migration as the permanent or semi-permanent change in residence from one administrative unit (district, country, province, state or country) to another. And it is usually considered to be an economic man’s reaction to socio-economic differentials between regions. Migration has become an important factor influencing population dynamics in a geographical area. Fertility and mortality determines the rate of natural population increase in any locality. The overall size of the population such an area depend on the pattern of migration. Population movements are often responsible for observable sudden changes in population size in many locality. It is however, pertinent to note that migration is an instrument to the solution of many social and economic problems. As a socio-economic act, migration may not be of interest in itself other than in the result of its effect, but it does often gives rise to problems as well as providing solutions.
Many people from rural area have been moving to urban cities. Rural urban has attracted many people simply because of white collar jobs, education, change of environment, climate or whether condition etc. The rural urban migration in our society today can be seen as a spontaneous human effort to achieve balance between population and resources. It is natural phenomenon which produces demographic social and economic interaction that reduces some of the irregularities of nature i.e. people wants to move from a place where there are no socio amenities (rural), to where there are socio amenities (cities). According to Lawai (1983). The implications of this movement is that while most of our urban centers suffers from over population of people and activities, rural areas are often under populated. There are two factors responsible for this movement from rural area to urban centers. These are the “push” and the “pull” factors.
Push factors: This factor causes the forwards movement of people from rural to urban centers. While the pull factor, it directed or draw people towards itself e.g. education, white collar job and among others. The most affected people in this rural urban migration are the educated youths who are unable to obtain a suitable job in a urban region. The mobility of man has increased with technical and economic process. He has specialized means of transport to assist his mobility as much that distance is spoken of in terms of time according to the mode of transport.
Migration is a dynamic component of population with reference to movement of people from one geographical area to another.
Rural-urban migration has a dual impact on the individual as well as the community either directly or indirectly. It is through the contribution of successful migrants that most important projects in our society today have been made possible. This fact can be buttressed by the financial support given to gigantic project like the building of community school and some infrastructure in our society. It is against this introductory background of the study that the researcher has intended to examine how rural-urban migration has affected the socio cohesion in our society today.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Since 1960 there has been massive movement of people from rural areas to urban centers. This project was meant to find out the influence of rural urban migration on social cohesion. Prothero (1965) recognizes four of rural urban migration which are the daily movement, seasonal migration, short-term or periodic movements, and definitive or long term movements.
Rural-Urban Migration has become too rampant on the rural areas especially in our society today which is our area of study. And they migrate without considering the socio-economic impact of this movement on their parents and the community in general.
Perhaps this movement may be as a result of lack of enough social amenities in our rural societies, searching for white collar jobs, for education purposes, climate condition among others. This is what the researcher intend find out in this project.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In view of the above stated problems, the study therefore seeks to:
i) Identify the causes of migration from villages to urban centers and enumerate the rationale behind such movements.
ii) Examine the negative and positive influence of rural urban migration on rural communitydevelopment.
iii) To examine if there is any significant relationship between rural urban migration and the social development of the rural community.
iv) Suggest possible remedies to check such influx of people from rural areas to urban centers form sound national planning and developmental purpose.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Since research preposition are meant to test the validity of assumption, the following questions are stated for the purpose of this study.
H0: rural urban migration has no influence on the social well-being and infrastructural development of the rural community.
H1: rural urban migration has an influence on the social well-being and infrastructural development of the rural community.
H0: there is no significant relationship between rural urban migration and the social well-being of the rural community.
H2: there is a significant relationship between rural urban migration and the social well-being of the rural community.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that at the end of the study the findings will provide fresh and much needed inputs on the possible effects of rural-urban migration on public utilities to policy makers, planners and institutions of learning too. Specifically; the study will help to educate the mind of the individual, policy makers and the government to see the need to formulate policies for integrated rural development to check rural-urban drift in our society.
It will tackles the problems that force people to leave their rural origin, by bridging the development gap between urban and rural areas through the introduction of sound rural development strategies and effective urban management. It will also help to provide information for planners and policy makers to formulate and implement population redistribution or migration policy. The significance of the study would help the youth and entire society to know the negative and positive effects on rural-urban migration and how to found a solution to the problems. The findings will be of importance to researchers/students intending to work on related topics.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study centers onrural urban migration rural community development, particularly reference to the people of NsitUbiumin AkwaIbom State. The kind of migration that we are principally interested in in this study is rural to urban migration, which is the movement of people from country side to city areas. The researcher encountered some constraint in the course of the study which include:
Time factor: The time allocated to the researcher during the period of the study was limited coupled with lectures and exams.
Financial constraint: the finance at the disposal of the researcher during the course of the study wasn’t sufficient enough to run the expenses of the research work.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Migration: This means the movement of people from one place to another. Teriba (1982) sees migration as the movement of people from one civil division to another.
Settlement: This is a place where people live.
Emigration: It is the movement of people out of a country.
Immigration: This is the movement of people into country.
Net migration: The difference between the number of immigration and emigrants.
Immigrant: These are people that move into a country.
Emigrants: These are people that engage in the movement out of a country.
Social environment: The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact.
Rural-urban migration: Some migrations are forced, voluntary, permanent and temporary, International and regional. The type of migration that we are principally interested in in this unit is Rural to urban migration, which is the movement of people from countryside to city areas.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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