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1.0.1 AN OVERVIEW
The term quality control and inspection originated in the term appeared in an article by Dr. A.V fiegenboun and again in this quality control and inspection “Engineering and management (1961). Quality control and inspection, as perceived by its.
American gurns had its origins in mass production and terrorism. At the time Taylor style management was at its climax in the united state and unchallenged even by the behaviour scientists. Quality control as a science has its root in the origins of mass production, notably in the ford motor company. Inspection quality today is markedly different from anything envisaged by its American pioneers.
Quality systems have been evolving rapidly in recent years. Over the past twenty years. Simple inspection activities have been replaced or supplemented by quality control. Quality assurance has along side been developed and refined, and the most progressive companies are now working towards inspection quality management.
This is as a result of:
a. Customers becoming aware that complying with the requirement of a particular quality system is not necessarily a sure-fire guarantee against producing and delivery non-conforming products to the customer. A quality assurance system does not necessarily, of itself encourage a continual improvement approach to quality. It may mean only that an customer satisfaction has procedures in place.
b. The imposition of stringent quality requirements by major customers.
c. The loss of market share to competitors.
d. Increased contact with personnel from Japanese companies.
e. Published case studies, which focus on how companies have set about developing quality control inspection and the benefits of doing so.
f. The teaching of internally respected quality exports such as Deming, fiegenbaun, Taguchi, Jurancrosby and Shingeo, (Dale and Plunketl, 1990)
The concept inspection quality is basically new to managers, its practice therefore limited. The singular concept of quality, control or management, is more common to modern management through varying in definition.
Literature dealing with the concept of inspection quality and till data more and more literature is still being produced as a result of the widest interested in the subject matter of quality control inspection and business process improvement there is therefore so mush literature covering the subject matter and its various aspects. Continuous cost reduction, productivity and quality improvement have proved essential for customer satisfaction to stay in operation it is almost impossible not to see how quality has developed into the most important competitive weapon, many organizations have come to realize that inspection quality management is the way for managing for the future. Although, inspection quality is correct, except, of course by simple coincidence. A need clearly arises to unify certain beliefs, especially as related to quality management.
The concept of customer and supplier is in most customers limited to the interface between the supplier if raw materials to the customer satisfaction and those who take or make use of the output of the organization. This concept is limited in its use it that be the case as evident in the fact that every one in an customer satisfaction is both a supplier and customer to another person in the same customer satisfaction (Oakland, 1993) lack of knowledge of which may frustrate the practice of inspection quality management. Understanding of such quality control inspection principle will make for improved organizational operations or business processes. To what extent are such principles understood, accepted and practiced.
1.1 Background To The Study
Traditional cost and management accounting practices have been under substantial criticism for lack of efficiency and capability in coping with the requirements of a changing environment of the modern world. The criticism is as a result of inability of traditional cost and management accounting practices to provide detailed information on the activities that are important for organizational sustainable development. Sustainable development takes into consideration the fact that economic efficiency depends on many variables such as legislature, technology and socio-cultural factors. In order to promote sustainable development and achieve organizational goals, it is necessary for management to act taking into account not only profit making but also the environment and society (Todorut, 2012). Askarany (2006) also echoed this observation, stating that traditional cost and management accounting systems have failed to keep up with the increasing demands imposed on them by technological change in business environments. Cooper, Roben, Maskell and Brian (2008) stated that the long-term viability of any organization whether in the competitive or non- competitive sector depends largely upon how well it understands and how effectively it meets customers’ requirements. Most organizations still have a long way to go, but some have begun embracing modern management accounting practises. Many forms of modern Management Accounting practices are now in use; examples are Just-in-Time (JIT) systems, Material Requirement Planning (MRP), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Total Quality Management (TQM) (Askarany, 2006). One of the best forms of Management practices is TQM which has received great attention in the last two decades (Juang & Wang, 2006).
The core ideas of Total Quality Management (TQM) were introduced in the mid-1980s by, most notably, Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran and Kaoru Ishikawa (Nyakudya, 2011). TQM is generally understood as an integrated organizational strategy for improving product and service quality (Mubaraki, 2008). Since the mid-eighties TQM has been sold as a near-universal remedy for a range of organizational problems, including improved organization performance. TQM is an integrated organisational effort designed to improve quality at every level. It is about meeting quality expectations as defined by customers and thus it is called Customer-defined quality. However, defining quality is not as easy as it may seem because different people have different ideas of what constitutes high quality (Van Ho, 2011).
This study therefore aims at assessing the role of TQM and inspection on customers’ satisfaction in hotel industry using selected hotels in Ilorin Metropolis as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is the purposes of the study to determine if there is a relationship between the knowledge and the practice of inspection quality management. That is while the customer satisfaction may be aware of the concept of quality control inspection, to what extent do they practice quality control inspection and at what levels of the organization. What is the cause of this tend is part of our problem.
The longer a method of operating is in practice the more likely it is either accepted or abandoned based on its merits or demerits. Inspection quality management has not been rejected in theory or in practices since inception, rather improvements are being made intermittently or as the need arises. Having been generally accepted, therefore, what gain have been made by the customer satisfaction that has adopted this new management style. The general view or notion that only customer satisfaction with existing managerial problems can only be accepted to refuted after a rigorous enquiring into why our study customer satisfaction Michelin Nigeria limited, switched to practice inspection question management, and why, along side the gains or benefits desired form the change to inspection quality management.
Many customer satisfaction have their individualized or personalized definitions of quality and these definition often guide the entire organization, research can bring to bear the different definitions adopted or accepted by most manufacturing firms. Inspection quality management however holds a firms definition of quality, that is the conform once to requirement. (Hutching 1992). There is a need to know how if the practice quality control inspection has brought about an improvement in the customers product quality since the user of the product can perceive quality, the same user or customer is better place to define quality for the organization.(Oakland, 1993) this is because the definition of quality cannot be erroneous while the practice.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
Specifically this research aims at
i. assessing the relationship between Total quality inspection and customers’ satisfaction and
ii. investigating the external factors influencing the adoption of Total Quality inspection.
1.4 significance of research
Theory holds that every organization regardly of the industry to which it belongs or the nature to which it belongs or the nature, of its activities can make use of inspection quality management techniques. Other theorists propound that only customer satisfaction with existing managerial problems or ineffective managerial structures needs to adopt quality control inspection.
This research seeks to find out the truth. Inspection quality management is an off-shoot of other or earlier managerial constructs concept and theorists, this is obvious because the concept of quality is clearly now, now but the concept of inspection quality management. It is believed that quality control inspection will then open other chapters in the push for more improved methods of running customers aimed at the attainment of zero error in production. That is, new directions in management theory can be suggested by research, such as this. Although, most theories of quality control inspection are adopted from management theory already in existence, quality control inspection is only interested in refining their practicability to the benefit and or efficient running of the organization. Inspection quality is an approach to management that has evolved from a narrow focus on statistical process control (Spc) to incorporate a variety of technical behaviour methods of made in almost any measure, many of which are not industry specific, examples includes debtorl corditor rations, credit period. Labour turnover, age of employees, training level etc.
Benchmarking is a continuous process of measuring a company’s products, services and methods practices either against direct competition or company known and accepted as leaders (Baridan 1998)
The measure can be internal, unit to unit, competitive, by product function or services, industry leader, comparison with leaders in the industry, generic, comparison of function or process, which are the same regardless of industry. Eg distribution (Baridan).
Benchmarking study are carried out done to find best practice in the critical process deduction from the customers critical success factors or CSF’S (Akinduro 1997).
This is concerned with the establishment and maintenance of documented procedures designed to ensure that design, development and operational activities result in product or services contracted requirements.
This embraces all activities concerned with measurement, data collection and analysis, conducted within the plans laid down by quality which are designed to give early warning or negative trends in processes to be taken before detection work is produced.
STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL
This is one and the same with statistical process control. A part of quality control, but including a wide range of technique for the diagnosis, elimination and control of process related problems. The techniques vary from simple to the sophisticated.
This has to do with the taking of measurement with comparison purposes after the event of production or the completion of services. While it is hoped that someday this activity will be a thing of the past, it will probably be with us for a long while for obvious reasons. However, it should be noted that inspection adds nothing to the value of the product or services, but rather add it’s cost if quality measures are followed strictly, reliance on inspection should almost be eliminated or reduced.
Improving organizational performance
1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Every study has its limitations fall below.
The ideas, which the researcher has established or acknowledged.
Naturally, knowledge of these limitations is essential for an appropriate interpretation of the findings. Devoid of the basic limitation that are general to almost every research such as time, cost of materials, mobility collecting and processing of data, and restrictions related to difficulties in the interpretations of findings as a result of the nature of the characteristics of the population. This research has its own unavailability of related materials, difficult in accessing customer satisfacture records, for example, Michelin for over decades an industry leader in the manufacture of both domestic and industrial size tyres. That was partly as a result of the close guarding of information of any sort or form, which could have given up their technology secrets. Notable among the many limitations that brought about by the external environment. That is the motivations extraneous that may account for any success or failure in implementation and, or execution of quality control inspection in the organization. As mush as possible, the external environment will be checked or held constant to ensure that reliable result are obtained from this study.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERM AND VARIABLE
Inspection quality (TQ)
Quality can best be described as anything that an organization, a society or a community does, which in the eyes of other determines its reputation on a comparative basic with the best alternative.
INSPECTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT (QUALITY CONTROL INSPECTION)
This is a sub-element of inspection quality and embrances the managerial and customer features. It does not include the philosophical or business strategic issues. The word “management” means authoritative control over the affairs of others or an act or instance of guiding or the careful grading of an asset. (ttutetin 1992).
QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION (TQC)
This is the term used in Japan, which frustrates as inspection quality as earlier described. It is a profound concept and goes far beyond the parameters of quality control inspection. This is because the word “control” implies that there is
i. A plan
ii. performance of the plan-doing
iii. Comparism between plan performance checking
iv. Corrective action on the difference.
This is the attaining and setting of standards that effectively and eventually becomes targets for all serious competitors in the same or related industries, such comparison of standard can be quality management is for wider in its application than assuring product or services quality. It is a way of managing business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage. (lerit, 1994) because customer satisfaction must more from satisfying the customer to delighting the customer.
Customer delight the customer by consistently meeting customer requirements and they achieve a reputation for excellence (Oakland, 1993) All members of the customer satisfaction need to work together on a company wide quality improvement basis to be able to meet this goal. The co-operation of everyone at every interface must be secured to attain this level of perfection changing the life long behaviours of customers and prejudices of an customer satisfaction is not easy. Experience has provide that simply throwing money cannot make significant changes to behaviours and attitudes and training at the problem, something more is required. Dale and Plunkett, 1990)
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