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1.1 Background to the Study

The blacksmithing industry is one of the economic activities that existed in Kamuru from 1920 to present. Therefore, the background of the study of the period 1960-2000, is to attempt doing justice to the topic of this research by analyzing the relationship between the blacksmiths and farmers in Kamuru District of Zangon Kataf local government area. The importance of studying the topic of this discuss is to help future researchers to understand the importance of the interrelationship between the famers and the blacksmiths on the basis of economic dependence on each other, during this period of study, which is specify above.  

Blacksmithing is one of the earliest vocational technological and economic activities on earth, and as a result most of the economic activities of mankind especially agriculture depended heavily on it. For this reason, the economic importance of the profession cannot be over emphasized. For instance, the butcher cannot conduct his activities without depending on the blacksmiths. In the same vein, the farmers, local barbers, the wood cutters, the cloth-dyers, and the host of others depended on them for their working tools.

At the rise of African civilization the essential tools to survival were found through the use of wood and stone. These tools proved to work well enough for hunting, gathering, and farming, when man began to grow plants for food by the used of agricultural technics. But as time changes, mankind evolved, and it became necessary to find more efficient tools. With the discovery of iron, men began to produce more complex and sophisticate iron tools like knives, for domestic used, arrows, spares, axes, etc. for hunting, and were as well used in the battle fields for the act of war.

The first chapter of this research gives the general overview of the introduction of various key points of what the chapters of this research is all about? Due to this fact, it is necessary to use all the main sources that will imply the quality of the research, in conducting a thorough research that will authenticate this very important information that is needed for the purpose of this research project.

However, the second chapter focuses on the brief history of the blacksmith, the geographical location of Kamuru District, the people and peopling of Kamuru District, the establishment of the Kamuru District, the economic and social history of  Ikululand and traditional activities, and conclusion. The research will claim all the sources the blacksmithing and farmers agriculture relationship in Kamuru District as the significance of the study of research.

The chapter three will lay emphasis on the development of iron tools, socio-cultural activities of the blacksmith and the relationship between blacksmiths and farmers the establishment of the railway line and the growth of blacksmithing in addition to the challenges fact by the blacksmith industries.

Consequent upon this, the chapter four of this project would look at the general contribution and development of the blacksmith to agricultural production in Kamuru District, smiting as a small scale enterprise nature of production, market and distribution of farm products and role of blacksmith industries in agricultural development and conclusion.

The chapter five forms the summary and conclusion and gives the bibliography. The reason that necessitated the research on this project topic, is to enable the society to acquire more knowledge through the study of this research and in order to add value to scholarship, through the contributions and ideas of the blacksmiths, the research will help the society in understanding their perception and views about the black smiting industry, via the use of this reliable source, a written document.1

Furthermore, the farmers equally depended on the blacksmithing industries in other obtained certain instrument for their daily domestic activities for instance, the blacksmith produced their cooking utensil and other ornament, while the farmers also produced food crops, which are sometimes used as exchange for service render to the farmers by the blacksmith. This study however, is very significance because it will further enhance the relationship between farmers and the  blacksmiths in  Kamuru community, the entire Kamuru district and it will as well serve as a guide for other people who will later conduct research in the study of the blacksmiths industries in Zangon Kataf local government area, and Southern Kaduna at large. This is because the afore-mention people above share common cultural heritage, and also share similar experience in their interrelationship, which is the major focus of this project research, the study of the blacksmithing industries in Kamuru.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The blacksmithing industries have been relegated and is becoming obsolete, due to the inventions of modern science and technology, prior to the coming of Europeans into the African continent, and the British occupation of the Nigerian area. The imperialist capitalist ideologies that succeeded in making African locally made products inferior to their western counterparts, had been gradually taken the goods produced by the local blacksmiths of the Nigerian area out of the market, due to the fancy nature of the capitalist goods, which the goods produced by the local blacksmiths is not package in that dimension. For example, the replacement of the locally made hoes with tractors, local knives with fancy ones, local bows and arrows, with guns and machine guns, the replacement of other local ointments objects, with those of the capitalist, had exacerbated the backwardness faced by the blacksmithing industries in the Nigerian area prior to the coming of the western colonial administration, due to the inability of the Nigerian traditional rulers to established a system that encourages the used of iron and their in abilities to put these blacksmiths under pressure, to development in the Nigerian area, and most especially in this area of discuss Kamuru District, just like Hitler curiosity during the world war II that forces the German engineers, to invent a car that could be used in the deserts, without water, which led to the invention of Beetle. 2

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project is to study the relationship between blacksmiths and farmers in Kamuru District of Zangon Kataf Local Government Area. Due to the necessity, and the urgent need of written materials by student of tertiary institutions, who always end becoming handicap, whenever an attempt is made to make  such a topic like  this, as an area of discuss in any research that talk about the people socio-cultural heritage. It also becomes necessary, because the blacksmithing profession, is my family hereditary business, which also gave me more inside about the existing relationship between the blacksmiths and the farmers in that region. 3

The broad objective include the followings:

1.      To provide a brief history of the blacksmithing industry in Kamuru district.

2.      To discuss the development of agricultural activities in Kamuru.

3.      The aim is to study the development of the blacksmith industries.

4.      Political history of Ikululand.

5.      The contribution of blacksmith in agricultural development in Kamuru district.

1.4 Significance and Justification of the Study

The significance of this research is to help student and the entire people of the afore-mention area of the study, to have advanced knowledge of the developmental impact of western education in the area, from 1960-2000. Having done this, the research has been conducted in such a manner that the historical background of the study was traced back to the imperialist capitalist effort to cripple existing African industries, which the blacksmith is not an exception.

This information’s were gotten from books, archival materials and oral interviews, which to the best of my knowledge are true, and should therefore be regarded as reliable sources of information about the development of blacksmithing industry in Kamuru District, and  the co-existing interrelationship between the farmers and the blacksmiths of the area. This information’s should be used in the libraries and other institutions of learning for reference purposes. Moreover, the study therefore is expected to enrich the already existing literature that will be used academically and practically by teachers, students, government and other organizations who had keen interest on the development of blacksmiths industries in Kamuru District area.

However, it is expected to promote understanding and respect for the institution and practices in the district area, there is no  doubt that the research is significant, and will still remain significant, because the blacksmithing industry had created a lot of impact, and will continue to create more in the area. 4

1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This work will focus on the agricultural development in Zangon Kataf local Government area of Kaduna State, Specifically from 1960 – 2000 which cover the period of 40 years what influence the year 1960 marked the beginning of the commercial agriculture in Kamuru District. While terminating period is year 2000 which saw the advancement in the field of agriculture especially cash crop production where virtually the farmers engaged in it and also served as sources of income and revenue generation. 5

1.6 Methodology

In this manner, the research attempt different methods, to ensure that this research is carried out in accordance to the norms and ethics of universal academic standard, by this the reader can adequately assess or evaluate the adequacy of the research, and to help other researchers to make reference to the study or adopt a different pattern for better development covers primary sources, secondary, and tertiary sources. And various thesis and dissertation were used in generating the dates.

However, the sources or materials that are used were gotten from Arewa House history departmental library, paper presentations, and oral interviews. All this historical source were very relevant information’s in conducting this research. The researcher makes conscious and pragmatic efforts to avoid societal influence on this dissertation, as he also tried to avoid any distortion, misinterpretation of evidence before him in explaining the subject matter the covering law of divine providence and dialectical materialism, as well as the behavioural approaches.

Above all, the researches corroborate his evidence or sources and ensured their authenticity before he uses them in reconstructing the history of blacksmithing and agricultural activities in Kamuru district. 6  

1.7 Literature Review

The first book that consulted was by the Joseph N. Ukwedeh he who wrote about the blacksmithing activities in Nigeria. To him the blacksmith were mainly concerned with the construction of iron smelting tools like big hoes small knives, axes, cutlasses. However, he did not discussed the relationship between the blacksmiths and farmers. 7

Basely W. in his book published in 1978-1979 discussed the economic importance of the blacksmithing industries to agricultural development of the area, he talk about the contributions of the blacksmith to cotton farming, groundnut farming etc. He also talk about the textile tools produced by the blacksmith, for the indigenous textiles industries, who made used of the available cotton produced, to provide the populace a form of clothing, which also serve as a boost to socio-economic activities. This also boost the tie and die industries. He also stated that iron implements such as cutlasses, hoes, knifes, were constructed by the blacksmiths, which aids developments. 8 

According  to the P.J. Jagger, the contributions of the blacksmith  to the agricultural economic development of Nigeria can never be over-emphasize, due to ability to produce the necessary implement needed for agricultural production purposes such as, big hoes, small hoes, cutlasses, etc. He also talked about agricultural development. The paper presentation didn’t say much about the relationship between farmers and blacksmiths. Rather, he talk about the implements produced by the blacksmiths such as weapons, iron smelting, nails, and changing technology of blacksmithing activities, in Nigeria area. A study in social change in Kano, blacksmiths traditionally, he talk about the contributions of blacksmith in agricultural development. 9

I.A Akinjogbin 1980. His book made mention few blacksmithing tools like, hammer, pinches, hooks, chisels, etc. But mention only few of some of the most relevance materials uses for blacksmithing activities. However, most of the important elements and materials constructed included, iron weapons, cutlasses, knives nails and other agriculture implements. In addition to this blacksmithing, really encouraged the agricultural activities such as food and cash crops production, such as onion, soya beans, groundnut, and millets guinea corn. 10


1.   8 Endnotes

2.      J.N. Ukwedeh, 2012, Book Published Vol. 6. Seminar Series.

3.      A. Bello, University Press Limited, Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. Vol. 6, 1978-1979.

4.      The Economic History of Hausa Capital Zaria In The 18th and 19th Century.

5.      B.W. Andah, A. Ikechukwu Okpoko 2012 published the book.

6.      I.A. Akinjogbin (Segun Osoba ISBN 978-136-019-4.

7.       First Published in 1980 by University of the Press Ltd. ILE IFE, Nigeria.

8.      C. Akobubdu Printed by ODU’A Printing Company Ibadan.

9.       Professor I.A. Akinjogbin General Editor Department of History University of IFE ILE IFE.

10.  P.J. Jaggar Paper Presentation the Kano Blacksmiths-A Study in Social Change. Paper Presentations.

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