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This research work was carried out to examine the influence of staff training on organizational performance. The study sought to determine the relationship between staff training and employee performance. The survey method was employed to carry out the research. The survey questionnaire was the main instrument for gathering primary data, while the secondary data was obtained from textbooks, journals, websites, and so on. Abraham Mashlow’s theory of need was considered appropriate as theoretical guide for the study. The simple percentage was used in analyzing the data collected while chi-square was used in testing the hypotheses. However, when the data was analysed, the researcher discovered that training and retraining of staff tends to improve employee’s performance leading to efficiency and productivity. Also, with proper funding of training programmes the employee will perform maximally. The study made recommendations that the organization should develop a clearly defined policy for training and retraining of its staff to bring about an increase in productivity.
1.1 Background of the Study
Training in Nigeria could be traced back to 1960 when it was discovered that most of the top government and business positions were occupied by expatriates (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013).
The departure of the whites after independence gave rise to a big vacuum of capable indigenous human capital. This prompted the Federal Government of Nigeria to set up a Manpower Board in 1962 following the Ashby Commission’s Recommendations (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013).Consequently, the Federal Government of Nigeria established complimentary institutions like the Centre for Management Development (CMD), Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON), Industrial Training Fund (ITF), and Federal Training Centre to train and retrain employees as well as give orientation to fresh graduates of formal academic institutions (Olalere and Adesoji, 2013).
Today, we are witnessing an overwhelming number of research studies from both descriptive and prescriptive traditions, focusing on several characteristics of training programmes as well as their costs and benefits for organizations (Becker and Gerhart, 1996). At the same time, organizations have come to better understand the significance of training for their survival in knowledge-intensive and volatile markets of this era, and thus have increasingly acknowledged the profitability of developing their human resources through various forms of training (Berge, 2001; Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001).
Training is a crucial area of human resource management; it is the fastest growing segment of personnel activities, it is one of the most important organizational dynamics, and constitutes the pivot in which organizational survival is run. The training process is one of the most pervasive methods for enhancing the productivity of individuals and communicating organizational goals to personnel. Manpower is the basis of all resources and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to man kind’s use and benefits. Manpower is the pivot of every human institution. Even in the developed and industrial nations of the world where the use of machines and technology is at an advanced stage, manpower is still very essential. Training therefore holds the key to unlock the potential growth and development opportunities to achieve a competitive edge. In this context, organizations train and develop their employees to the fullest advantage in order to enhance their effectiveness (Iftikhar and Siraj-ud-din, 2009).
Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization (Cole, 2002). To manage an organization both large and small requires staffing them with competent personnel. The formal educational system does not adequately teach specific job skills for a position in a particular organization. Few employees have the requisite skills, knowledge, abilities and competencies (SKAC) needed to work. As a result, many require extensive training to acquire the necessary SKAC to be able to make substantive contribution towards the organization’s growth. In order to sustain economic growth and effective performance, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organizations.
In a developing country like Nigeria, training and development of manpower resources is highly needed in virtually all organizations for its effectiveness (Armstrong, 2009). Deficiencies in knowledge, skills, and ability among public personnel, particularly those of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are remarkable. Training is necessary to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions. Therefore, a continual need for the process of staff development, and training fulfill an important part of this process. Training should be viewed therefore as an integral part of the process of total quality management.
George& Scott (2012), argues that the recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of competition and the relative success of organizations where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized. Training has the distinct role in the achievement of an organizational goal by incorporating the interests of organization and the workforce (Stone, 2002). The employee performance depends on various factors. But the most important factor of employee performance is training. Training is important to enhance the capabilities of employees. The employees who have more on the job experience have better performance because there is an increase in the both skills & competencies because of more on the job experience (Fakhar and Khan, 2008).
The organizational productivity depends on the employee performance because human resource capital of organization plays an important role in organizational growth and productivity. To improve the organizational productivity and the employee performance, training is given to the employee of the organization. This shows that employee performance is important for the performance of the organization and the training and development is beneficial for the employee to improve its performance (Chris Amisano. S. 2010).
Despite the obvious significance of training, the enormous expansion in the content of training programs over time has largely been taken for granted. Some Human Resources Departments rarely question the necessity and appropriateness of training a particular employee at a particular time. Often times, there are ulterior motives why employees are sent on training. Mourdoukoutas (2012) found out that some of those organizations that neglect employee training do so because of the huge cost of training and the fear of losing those employees after training them. To show the importance attached to staff training, Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), conducts training on-the-job and off-the-job training for employees from time to time. To assist in the possible improvement of employee training, the research was embarked upon to investigate the effect of employee training on organizational performance using Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Uyo as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the difficult challenges confronting management of most organization today is how to make their workers become efficient and competent. This issue has led most organization to employ strategies by which to motivate their work force. Training is an effort initiated by organization to foster learning among its workers. Training and development are a continuous effort designed to improve employee’s competence and performance (George& Scott, 2012).
All organization has predetermined objectives and goals, these objective or goals are the end toward which the activities of the organization are directed. Every organization strives to achieve their respective goals and objectives since this is the parameter for assessing their success or failure, and those objectives cannot be accomplished without human effort. Udoji public service review commission has in His report stated that ‘‘of all the aspects of personnel management, perhaps the most important for Nigeria is training’’. Training is virtually important in any organization setup be it private or public (Eloizieuwa, 2012).
In spite of some outstanding efforts by government through various interventions and programmes towards effective staff training in Nigeria, very little has been done (especially the Nigerian Television Authority), has remained poor and inefficient due to shortage of skilled manpower, lack of adequate fund and facilities needed for effective staff training and development. Some NTA training centre and institution do not have modern training facilities such as computer, laboratories, HD quality cameras, and vehicles etc. to facilitate her staff training programme for effective service delivery. This in turn affects proper staff training process leading to staff inefficiency in service delivery. Little or no funds assigned for effective staff development and training by the government in the Nigeria Television Authority also pose a great challenge over staff training and development in NTA. The effect of the above problems leads to maintenance of status quo, ineffectiveness and inefficiency as well as poor quality and quantity of service delivery in private and government parastatal. Thus, the study focuses on the impact of staff training and organizational performance in government organization using Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) as a focal point.
1.3 Research Questions
Arising from the issue above, the Study raises the following research questions:
i. To what extents does staff training influence employee’s performance in NTA?.
ii. What are the resultant impacts of staff training on the organization productivity in NTA?
iii. How does poor funding of staff training programmes affect employee's performance in NTA?
iv. What measures should be adopted by the government and the NTA management to improve staff training programmes in NTA.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to assess the impact of staff training and development on organizational performance in Nigerian Television Authority.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
(i) To determine the relationship between staff training and employee’s performance in NTA.
(ii) To examine the resultant impacts of staff training and development on the organization productivity in NTA.
(iii) To determine how poor funding of staff training process affect employee's performance in NTA.
(iv) To suggest measures that should be adopted by the government and NTA management to ensure effective staff training process in the organization.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The result of the research is expected to go a long way to expose inadequacies of staff training and development programme in Nigeria Television Authority, Uyo Akwa Ibom State. It will also reveals in its totality, the advantage of staff training, development and their implication for management. The research has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study constituted a veritable material for research purposes. It will supplement the limited literature on staff training and its impact on productivity. In other words, the research will adduce essential material for academic study as research work form the basis of any meaningfully study. In addition, the study helps to inform the less informed and uninformed on the role of staff training in employee’s performance and productivity in Nigerian civil and public service.
The practical aspect of the significance of this study is that it will help to facilitate the intervention programmes on staff training in Nigeria. This research study serve as an eye opener to the policy makers in making of the policy that will help to propel the management board, private and public institution to embark on the staff training and development. In addition, the study will contribute greatly in solving the problem of poor service delivery public organization which will help to accelerate socio-economic and political development of the country. This is because there is evidence that investment in training is associated to socio-economic and political development. The development of country is associated with the kind of manpower that exists in the country.
1 Staff training tends to improve organizational performance in NTA.
2 There is a likely relationship between staff training and employee’s performance in NTA.
3 Poor funding of training programmes in Nigeria is likely to negatively influence employee’s performance in NTA.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study focuses on Staff training and organization performance using Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Uyo, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. To this end, the study seeks to evaluate the impacts of staff training and development on the employees performance and productivity among senior and junior staffs in NTA. Although there are other numerous factors that led to employees productivity in NTA, the study focuses mainly on staff training and development as the sole factor that contributes to employees competency and quality performance in NTA, Uyo.
Various limitations were encountered during the course of carrying out this research. One of such limitation is the dearth of intellectual materials relevant to the subject matter. Time constraint and inadequate finance also posed problems in the course of carrying out this investigation.
1.8 Definition of terms
Training: Training is an organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient performance or to help attain a required level of knowledge or skill in a job.
Productivity: The rate at which organizational workers produce goods and the quantity or amount produced.
Training Programme: this refers to an organized activity which may include workshop, seminars, part-time or full time educational programmes conducted for the staff of organization for a particular time frame.
Staff Training: this simply refers to the careful and deliberate attempt by the management to improve the knowledge and efficiency level of its staff.
Employee: This simply refers to a person who has agreed by contract to perform specified services for another or an organization.
Organization: A social unit of people systematically structured and managed to meet a need or pursue collective goals on a continuing basis.
Performance: The accomplishing of a given task measured against present known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.
1.9 Organization of the study
The study contains five chapters and has been arranged in such a way that will enhance a better understanding and meaning. Chapter one contains the introduction. It highlights the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study and research hypotheses. The chapter ends with the conceptual clarification of key concepts. Review of related literature, conceptual clarifications, impact and effects of staff training, training and employees performance in an organization as well as theoretical framework of the study are the discourse of chapter two.
Chapter three has to do with the research methodology that is applied to the study. Through its deep explanations, it gives rise to sub-topics like research design, description of the study area, population of the study, sampling technique and sample size, method of data collection and method of analysis among other sub-topics, while chapter four discusses data presentation, analysis and discussion of findings. Finally, chapter five summarizes, concludes and makes useful recommendations based on the research findings.
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