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The research work titled “impact of inventory valuation methods on the profitability of Champion Breweries Plc”. The general objective of this study is to appraise inventory management and control in manufacturing firm. The specific objectives are to: examine the effectiveness of the various tools and techniques (Economic order quantity and Economic Batch Quantity) used by manufacturing firms in inventory management and ascertain the extents to which inventory control contribute to profitability in manufacturing firms. This study adopted the ex-post factor and descriptive research design. This study is anchored on theory of Economic order quantity (Wilson EOQ). The area of the study is manufacturing firms’ precisely one manufacturing firm, Champion Breweries. The instruments used were main sources from both Primary data and Secondary data. The primary data was obtained using oral interview and properly structured questionnaire while the secondary data for the study were obtained mainly from textbooks, journals and internet articles. A simple percentage approach was employed to analyze the questionnaire while the hypothesis were tested using Regression Analysis at 5% level of significance. The analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. The study found that the various tools and techniques of inventory management adopted in manufacturing firms are effective since the significance value (p-value) of 0.046 < 0.05. it further found that inventory control has contributed significantly to the net profit of manufacturing organization (Champion Breweries plc) with (p-value) of 0.005 is less than 0.05. It therefore recommended that manufacturing firms should diversify their inventory system to suit specific needs of production and at the same time ensure that maximum attention is paid to inventory management so as to avoid or reduce the amount of loss that would be gotten from damaged goods in inventory.
1.1 Background to the study
The complex nature of today’s business world and the transformation of the entire world into a global village have been of great concern to managers of all forms of business organization. Because of this, managers are making conscious efforts researching on the most effective and efficient inventory valuation methods that will facilitate adequate profitability. The subject of this research is to determine the extent to which inventory valuation can facilitate profitability.
However, the word inventory, as known by the Americans and stock by British is indispensable in any manufacturing, merchandising and servicing organization. According to Welsch et al (1982: 222) “inventories are assets consisting of goods owned by the business at a particular time and held for future sales or for utilization in the manufacturing of goods for sales”. The types of inventories available differ depending on the nature of the business undertaking. For instance, a manufacturing company will make use of a raw material; work – in – progress and finished goods inventories, while trading organizations will make use of only finished goods inventories. Inventory generally represents an active asset because of their constant usage and replacement Pugh and seizer (1980: P .233). Therefore, the problem of safeguarding inventories is akin to protecting profit. The profitability of any manufacturing company is hindered by inadequately controlling the danger associated with inventory management. That is, over investment and under investment in inventory. Advisability of adequate stocking of items for sales, coupled with the risk of loss and cost of over stocking, create critical management planning and control problems. Failure to value inventories and to account for inventories can lead to business failure. Therefore in valuing inventory, the company’s objectives should be wealth maximization, which can be achieved by determining the optimum level of inventory sufficient for profit maximization.
However, inventory valuation in an organization is one of the key ingredients for efficient performance, which is further translation into profitability. Further more, inventory valuation involves the making of decision on the level of inventory that may be economically needed to meet the requirements for planned production and maximization of profit. Since all manufacturing companies are assumed to be “going concern”, long term survival, which comes from profitability is sometimes adjudged to be, the most important business objective. No manufacturing company can operate without material inputs, which in turn determine its output. Before any company is said to have effectively implemented its inventory valuation methods, there must have been an internal communications between different units and departments. The department of sales / marketing are the first to spot out changes in demand. This change must be worked into the company purchasing and manufacturing schedules, and the financial manager must arrange any financing that will be needed to support the inventory build-up. Therefore the neglecting of the inventory valuation will jeopardizes its long –run profitability and may fail ultimately.
It is against this backdrop that the study appraises the inventory management and control in manufacturing firms.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Inventory is the life blood of any organization. This is because inventory contributes directly to the profitability of an organization more so the growth of any organization depends largely on its ability to manage its inventory effectively and efficiently.
The real problem therefore has been in the determination of the best inventory control method that fits into an organization very well and also to get the best inventory level at which money invested in inventory will produce a rate of return higher than it if invested in some other areas of the business (Amoako-Gyampah & Gargeya, 2011). Manufacturing firms are finding it challenging as to determination of how much of the inventory is the ideal stock as to maintain. If inventory level is high, capital is unproductively tied up. If the level of inventory is low, production will be affected.
However, this study aim to carry out an investigation on the relationship between inventory management control technique and performance of manufacturing firm and also find the extent to which inventory control has effect on performance of a manufacturing firm.
Poor inventory management involves poor planning, executing and controlling a supply and utilization of chain network inventory that is critical to the success of the organization. Inadequate control of inventory consist of lack of managerial skills relevant to proper inventory management exposes many organizations to many problems like overstocking, damage, deterioration and others.
Problem of deciding which item of inventory should be kept in stock and at what quantity lead to need for Economics Order Quantity (EOQ) in an organization. Some organization looses much due to their failure to keep with EOQ desirable for them, and this work throws more light to forestall this.
The problem of not implementing the inventory management systems; Many organizations do not keep abreast with inventory management systems due to poor or no knowledge about the inventory management and such organizations are bound to face several related problems that this work highlights on towards reducing them.
Also, in some manufacturing firms, they find it difficult to determine how much of the inventory to order and when to order; in order to meet customers demand and smooth flow of production process without unnecessary stoppage, idle time due to unavailability of inventory.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The overall objective of this study is to appraise inventory management and control in manufacturing firms of some selected manufacturing firms. The specific objectives are to:
i. Examine the effectiveness of the various tools and techniques (Economic order quantity or Economic Batch Quantity) used by manufacturing firms in inventory management.
ii. Ascertain the extents to which inventory control contribute to profitability in manufacturing firms.
iii. Examine how effective inventory valuation method create positive impact on the corporate profitability?
1.4 Research questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
i. How effective are the various tools and techniques of inventory management in manufacturing firms?
ii. To what extent has inventory contributed to profitability in manufacturing firms?
iii. How does effective inventory valuation method create positive impact on the corporate profitability?
1.5 Research hypothesis
The under-stated hypotheses will be tested in the course of this study:
Ho1: Economic order quantity (EOQ) and Economic Batch Quantity (EBQ) techniques of inventory management adopted in manufacturing firms are not effective.
HA:Economic order quantity (EOQ) and Economic Batch Quantity (EBQ) techniques of inventory management adopted in manufacturing firms are effective.
Ho2: Inventory control has not contributed significantly to the net profit of manufacturing organization.
HA: Inventory control has contributed significantly to the net profit of manufacturing organization.
1.6 Significance of the study
Future investors: This research work can be of great help to those who have a little or no knowledge in manufacturing business. It will be valuable to people who are interested in the manufacturing business and wish to make it their career.
Manufacturing firms: The research work can help the Manufacturing Company to improve in areas where it is needed in their inventory operations so as to boost their profitability and consequently increase their shareholders wealth, and to assist the organizations to maximize their profits and reduce their risk of liquidity.
General public: Indeed, this will in no little way have effects on the national growth and development of Nigeria manufacturing sector and economy at large. Customers’ goodwill towards the organization will be maintained as it enables delivery committed to be met all the time.
Future researches/ Academia: This work will be of immense benefit and use to the future researches as reference document and will provide a base for other research works that might be carried out on stock management in any other sector.
1.7 Scope of the study
This study is focus at a particular manufacturing company in Akwa Ibom state. This manufacturing company is selected based on its costing method, i.e. process costing. The selected company is champion Breweries plc of which my study is limited to.
1.8 Limitations of the study
In conducting this research work, the researcher encountered some difficulties such as the following:
a. Hoarding of data: Manufacturing firms held tightly their methods and data generated from their operations because they argued that they operate in a competitive industry and would not want to release their secret to their competitors.
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