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1.1 Background to the study

Employees are major assets of any organization. The active role they play towards an organizational success cannot be underestimated. As a result, equipping these unique assets through effective human capital management becomes imperative in order to maximize the job performance, attain organizational goals and also position them to take on the challenges of today’s global competitive business climate.However, in recent times, many organizations employee human capital as much as possible but are unable to meet organizational goals and objectives. The case of educational system in Nigeria is worth discussing. Majority are going into the teaching line yet the performance of the sector is going down. In the banking sector for instance, human capitals are being employed frequently and in large numbers, yet most banks cannot meet their targets and their deposits and profits are depreciating in amounts.

Human capital is considered as one of the core components of intellectual capital and is a critical resource in anorganization.Accordingto Bontis, Koew and Richardson (2000), it is not enough for organizations to hire and promote the brightest individuals they find but they should nurture and support them into developing and sharing their potentials through training and learning to positively affect and increase the organizational performance.Nations, organizations and individuals increasingly recognize that training, high levels of skill and competence are essential to future security and success. It is obvious that as individuals are appraised, acquire more skills and training during a lifetime, performanceandefficiency as well as creativityareachieved.Apparently, there is an established linkage between human capital elements and organizational goal attainment but the economic value of human capital cannot be questioned. According to Starbuck (1992, Hassen 1995), an important concern among scholars is what type and how much human capital is required to create a competitive advantage for organizations.

Improving the quality and relevance of human capital management would enable organizations to better understand their overall “people-related” strengths and weaknesses and identifying areas for improvement. When organizationshavemuchbetterskilledandcreativeemployeesitcaneasilyavoidwastefulinvestmentandimproveitsefficiencyandperformance. Training,then becomesthemostimportantpartofhumancapitalmanagementfunctionforeffectiveuse ofhumanresource. Today, everyoneadmitsthevalueoftrainingasamajorinfluenceonsuccessoftheorganization.Trainingenhances knowledgeandinformationaboutacertainfieldandalsoaddsadvantagetonetworkingforefficiencyandperformanceofemployees.Humancapital element isthemostvaluableassetineveryorganization; as withthemachines,materialsandthemoney, absolutelynothinggetsdonewithoutemployees.Trainingtherefore,isreallyahumancapitaldevelopmentinwhichknowledge, skillsandbehaviorarerequiredbyemployeestoperformadequatelyonanassignedtaskorjob.Trainingcantakeplaceinnumerousways,onthejoboroffthejob;intheorganizationoroutsideorganization.

1.2 Brief History of Akwa Ibom State Civil Service Commission

TheAkwa Ibom State Civil ServiceCommissionis an agency of Government established under the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria under Section 197 and part IIA of the Third Schedule.The Commission’s history could be traced to December 1987 shortly after the State was created from the Cross Rivers State with Chief Nyong U. Usen as a pioneer Chairman.

The functions of the commission are spelt out in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Apparently, the Commission’s statutory functions and powers include appointment, promotion and discipline of civil servants in the State Civil Service.As an appellate body, the commission meets every Thursday of the week to consider petitions/complaints emanating from Ministries and Extra-ministerial Departments. In addition, members of the commission serve as observers in senior staff management committee meetings in Ministries/Extra-ministerial Departments.

Other areas of the Commission’s activities cover responsibility for: (i) Advancement (ii) Contract appointments (iii) Transfer of service/secondment (iv) Serving as an appellate body for all petitions from the service (v) Maintaining comprehensive and up- to- date personnel records (vi) Regulating the operations of the Civil Service through provision of service guidelines and circulars and (vi) Monitoring the activities of ministries and extra-ministerial Departments in order to ensure maintenance of standards, uniformity and adherence to guidelines in the State.

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