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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Burnout is one of the psychological challenges that employees are faced with in the highly stressful and rapidly changing working environment (Nalini, 2009). The term burnout is conceptualized as a multidimensional syndrome consisting of three components namely: emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001).
Burnout experienced by employee remains a critical concern which affects both the individual and the institution. The individual’s physiologic reactions are provoked by the neuro-endocrine response which can lead to illness. The institution is affected by absenteeism, turnover, lower morale, reduced job performance and loss of productivity which influence the provision of quality nursing care (Jennings, 2008).
Workplace bullying is a form of interpersonal aggression, defined as repeated inappropriate and hostile behavior intended to harm, intimidate, degrade, or humiliate others (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2011). Its estimated global prevalence ranges between 11% and 18% (Nielsen, Matthiesen, & Einarsen, 2010). It is considered to be a major work stressor, bearing destructive consequences for employees who are the targets of bullying, including severe depression, anxiety (Hauge, Skogstad, & Einarsen, 2010), and burnout (Laschinger, Grau, Finegan, & Wilk, 2010).
The experience of burnout is detrimental to both employees and organizations, and is particularly problematic in the case of healthcare professionals, as it can negatively affect the quality of care they provide to patients (Montgomery, Panagopoulou, Kehoe, & Valkanos, 2011). These negative consequences underscore the importance of identifying resources that might moderate the workplace bullying–work outcomes relationship. Drawing on the job demands–resources theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2014), we investigated the role of control-related resources (i.e. job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy) in the relationship between workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees.
While there is general recognition of the importance of job resources as protecting factors that can moderate the stressor–strain relationship (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Van Rhenen, 2009), there is limited research into the role of job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy as resources in the context of workplace bullying and burnout. Very few studies have explored the moderating role of coping resources in the workplace bullying–outcomes relationship (for exception, see Carroll & Lauzier, 2014; Heponiemi, Kouvonen, Virtanen, Vänskä, & Elovainio, 2014; Laschinger & Nosko, 2015; Van Schalkwyk, Els, & Rothmann, 2011).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Employee emotional exhaustion and burnout reduces productivity and saps individual energy, leaving him/her feeling increasingly helpless, hopeless, cynical, and resentful. Eventually, the victim may feel like he has nothing more to give. The negative effects of emotional exhaustion and burnout spill over into every area of life including, home, work, and social life. Burnout can also cause long-term changes to the body that make the victim vulnerable to illnesses like colds and flu. This mostly occurs with the staff that are so engrossed with work and do not even have time for quality rest. Finally, there have been several research carried out on the stressor factors in an organisation but there has been no single research carried out on employee emotional exhaustion and burnout as determinant as work place bullying.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine employee emotional and burnout as determinant as work place bullying. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. to determine the factors affecting employee emotional exhaustion and its leading to workplace bullying.
2. to determine the effect of emotional exhaustion and burnout on employee’s performance.
3. to determine the influence of employee emotional exhaustion and burnout on work place bullying.
4. to proffer possible solution to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the factors affecting employee emotional exhaustion and it’s leading to workplace bullying?
2. What is the effect of emotional exhaustion and burnout on employee’s performance?
3. What is the influence of employee emotional exhaustion and burnout on work place bullying?
4. What is the possible solution to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Employee emotional exhaustion and burnout have no significant effect on work place bullying.
H1 Employee emotional exhaustion and burnout have a significant effect on work place bullying.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on employee emotional exhaustion and burnout as determinant as work place bullying will be of immense benefit to all organisations that come across this research work in the sense that it will educate them on the level at which employees can be stressed to and also give them time to take rest so as to avoid them being broken down by the stress of the job, and if they are drained emotionally, there is no way they can give their maximum best in their job designation. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on employee emotional exhaustion and burnout is limited to work place bullying.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EmployeeA person employed for wages or salary, especially at non-executive level.
Emotional Exhaustion Is a chronic state of physical and emotional depletion that results from excessive job and/or personal demands and continuous stress. It describes a feeling of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by one's work.
BurnoutBurnout is a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. It occurs when you feel overwhelmed, emotionally drained, and unable to meet constant demands.
DeterminantA factor which decisively affects the nature or outcome of something.
Work Place BullyingIs a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes either physical or emotional harm. It can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation.
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