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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One of the aims of setting up a business organization is to gain competitive advantage and to make profit. Without the employees discharging their assigned responsibilities, the objectives of the organizations may not be achieved easily and timely. Thus, employee performance is a crucial determinant of organizational goals. According to Al-Jammal, Al- Khasawpeh & Hamadat (2015), employees who are engaged in their work and committed to their organizations give the organisations crucial competitive advantages including higher productivity and lower employee turnover. Thus, it is not surprising that most of today’sorganizations find ways to make the employee to be committed by delegating some managerial authority to them.Due to the competitive nature of business activities which could be traced to globalization, the task of carrying the burden of the business activities cannot be done by the business owner(s) or managers alone. Therefore, there is need for some responsibilities to be shifted or assigned to the employees which will reduced the workload and pressure of the business owner(s) or managers
Delegation of authority is one of modern trends practiced by managers. It is function stands out contributing and increasing the level of motivation of employees and achieving positive returns for (an organization with a manager) and (an employee with a customer) both. On the level of an organization, it achieves competitive advantage, knowledge inventory, increases the level of productivity and speed in finalizing tasks effectively. On the level of manager, it alleviates functional burdens, gains employees' satisfaction and builds cooperation and trust between manger and employees giving a chance for manger to have full-time for realization more important work. So, it reduces physical and intellectual efforts exerted by manager and other employees. On the level of an employee, it works on achieving functional empowerment, constructing alternative and administrative leadership, making employees feel self-confidence and motivation for Excellency in performance. On the level of customer, it meets the needs of customers rapidly, delivering or providing the service will not be delayed due to delegation authority. Giving the customer a higher level of care and attention, building customer's perceived and creating loyalty and mutual respect for an organization and production in which the organization produced.
According to Al-Jammal et al.(2015) delegation of authority has impact on an organization, on the manager and on the employees. They opined the impact of delegation of authority on organization helps in achieving competitive advantage, increase in production as well as effectiveness in task completion. In the same vein, they stated that delegation of authority has lessen the functional burdens of the manager and it has built cooperation and trust between the manager and the employees which led to employees satisfaction. Thus, it reduces physical and intellectual efforts exerted by manager and other employees;on the level of an employee, they stated that delegation of authority works on achieving functional empowerment, constructing alternative and administrative leadership, making employees feel self-confidence and motivation for excellence in performance; andon the level of customer, delegation of authority meets the needs of customers rapidly, delivering or providing the service will not be delayed due to delegation authority. Past studies such as Al- Jammal et al, (2015), Kombo. Obonyo, & Oloko (2014) Kiiza & Picho (2014) etc have demonstrated that application of delegation of authority will help employee effectiveness to be enhanced, managers will be able to maintain their job position and preserve the process of facilitating business affairs, employees’ loyalty, and achieving performance efficiency .And it serves as a way to help manager in alleviating the burden of running the affairs of the business. Yukl and Ping Fu (1999) established that greater delegation will result to the following factors: Competence of the employee, sharing of managers’ task objectives by the employee, longstanding and positive relationship of the manager with the employee, and the status of the lower-level persons. Managers who choose to do everything hamper their own productivity; limit their employee performance and any contribution they do make as managers is often accompanied by frustration and excessive personal effort (Koontz et al, 1983).Thus, it is important to incorporate delegation of authority to managerial functions or practices to increase employee performance towards achieving organizational goals.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Delegation of authority involves a manger given one his employees a task to carry out and the corresponding authority. One of the major challenges of delegation of authority is the abuse of power by the employees. Some employees let the short term authority given to them to get into their head and they end up misbehaving.
The choice of employee to delegate duty and authority to is one the problems faced by a manger when it comes to point of delegation of authority. It is impossible for a manager to carry out all the tasks but the fear of delegating duties to an incompetent person is one of challenges. It stands out reality of phenomenon of delay in delivery of services to citizens, reviewers and routines from perspective of researchers based on thoughts of customers in order to obtain variety services, functional job methods and technical tasks done by employees of Nestle PLC which leads the capacity to absorb a long time with customers and reviewers to obtain the required services. So this study is focused to examine delegation of authority as a strategic tool for management efficiency.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY (PURPOSE)
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the nature of delegation
Ascertain who delegates
Ascertain the effect of delegation and responsibilities on staff performance.
Ascertain what authorities that are delegated ascertain the extent of accountability in carrying out the delegated functions etc.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. is authority really delegated in the Nestle Plc?
2. is there sufficient time to do an effective job delegation?
3. is authority delegated to the right people?
4. does delegation of authority have effect on the performance of the staff.
5. how effective does a subordinate make use of these delegated authorities?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study (when completed) will be important to managers, employees and future researchers.
The managers will find out that this study will make him realized that delegation will help them achieve organizational goals and the manager will also find out the dynamics and procedures of delegation.
Through delegation, the manager is able to divide the work and allocate it to the subordinates. This helps in reducing this work load so that he can work on important areas such as planning etc.
In the areas of the employee, the superior will center his energy on vital and critical issues of concern.
This way he is able to bring effectiveness in his work as well as in work via in the area of the subordinate to flourish their abilities and skills. Through delegating authority the subordinate gets a feeling of importance.
It is a guide in which superior-subordinate relationship stands. An organization function well as the authority flows from top level to bottom.
Finally, futures researchers who may wish to undertake related topics in study may find out that this work will be a valuable guide to their endeavour.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work would center in the reason why managers fail to delegates authority on its subordinates and also the reason why delegation of authority is practiced in many organization today. It is also conducted to know the effect of delegation of authority on the staff and manager or administration of the Nigeria Nestle Plc.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
TIME FACTORS: It is observed that time was the first factor which affected the researcher. Since it is also a course to be studied, it causes hindrance to other studies and also takes most of the researcher’s leisure time. Making research trip from Owerri to Port Harcourt to gather some useful information, the duration to carry out this research work is so short thereby making it impossible for proper studying of the organization.
FINANCE: The researcher was limited by little or no finance to carry out the work which result chiefly due to personal cost and transportation cost.
As it is noted, finance in any business organization or research work is conveniently regarded as the most powerful working tool as it constitutes the main stream of any transportation and an efficient research work.
RESPONDENT: In carrying out this research work the employees were found not co-operating very well with the researcher by nut giving out details or information required of the work because they tend to see it as a means of tarnishing the image of the organization they work unclear.
1.7 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
1. DELEGATION: This is the flow transmission of authority from top to the bottom of the organization. It is a way or process which involves the assignment of task the transmission of authority for accomplishment of the task and the accomplishing of task.
2. NESTLE PLC: This is the administrative service of government international agency exclusive of the armed forces especially on who appointments are determined by competitive examination.
3. AUTHORITY: This is the legitimate power given to someone to control the activities of others by issuing orders and enforcing obedience. In other words, it is an official power given to a person or body.
4. ORGANIZATION: This is an organized group of persons who come together for the purpose of attaining a certain set goals or objective.
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